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1843-1911. Danish bishop and theologian. In his youth he studied theology at Erlangen and was strongly influenced by F.H.R. Frank* and “the theology of experience.” In 1874 he became lecturer, and in 1875 professor in Christian dogmatics and NT exegesis at Copenhagen University. In 1909 he was appointed bishop of Zealand. Madsen was not distinguished by any special originality, but combined influences from various directions into a full-blown doctrinal system, mainly biblical conservative and orthodox Lutheran, but seriously weakened by tendencies of subjectivism, a mild synergism, a kenotic view of Christology, and by some unnecessary concessions to biblical criticism. He exercised an extensive influence on many students preparing for the ministry. His personal seriousness and piety left a lasting mark on many, and he was the most influential Danish theologian of his time. His principal literary works are a commentary on the (1887) and a posthumously published textbook on Christian dogmatics (1912-13).