c.730-802. Bishop of Aquileia. A Lombard born in Friuli, he excelled in juridical and theological scholarship. His reputation motivated Charlemagne to appoint him as master at the French court, where he became a firm friend of Alcuin,* and in 787 as bishop of Aquileia. Paulinus contended against Adoptianism at the synods of Regensburg (792), Frankfurt (794), and Cividale (796). At Frankfurt he wrote Libellus Sacrosyllabus, a refutation of the heresy, and he presided at Cividale, where the Filioque was adopted. Contact with the pagan Avars stimulated his significant contributions to medieval missionary theory and practice. Ecclesiastically he was a wise diplomat and progressive administrator, procuring the right of free episcopal elections. His writings include hymns or rhythms, poems, letters, and anti-Adoptianist pieces.