1552-1621. Pope from 1605. Born Camillo Borghese in Rome, he studied canon law at Padua and Perugia and maintained a lifelong reputation as an able and strict canonist. He served in the Curia beginning about 1580 and rose rapidly to the top, being created cardinal in 1596, becoming vicar of Rome in 1603, and elected pope two years later as a compromise candidate. He supported educational reform, approved new reform orders, and sponsored improvements in the city of Rome.