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Paul IV

Pope from 1555. Born Giovanni Pietro Caraffa of a noble Neapolitan family, he received a good education in the home of his uncle, Oliviero Cardinal Caraffa, who was able to secure an appointment in the Roman Curia for him. Beginning as a chamberlain under [[Alexander VI]], he became bishop of Chiete (Teate) in 1506. He also served as a papal envoy in several instances: in 1513 he was sent to England by Leo X to collect Peter’s Pence* from [[Henry VIII]]; he then went to Flanders (1515-17) and Spain (1517-20). It was perhaps this last mission which provoked an anti-Spanish feeling which was to affect the policies of his pontificate. Always active in reform movements within the church, Caraffa was a member of the Oratory of Divine Love from 1520 to 1527 and co-founder of the Theatines in 1524. In 1536 he was made a cardinal by Paul III and remained a staunch supporter of the Counter-Reformation, serving on reform commissions and reorganizing the Italian Inquisition.