OVEN. A chamber that is heated so as to roast or to bake the food materials placed inside. There were three principal types. In Egypt there was in nearly every house a structure of clay built on the house floor. In this, or on it, baking was done. In Palestine and Syria, a barrel-shaped hole in the ground was coated with clay and a quick hot fire of brambles or dry dung mixed with straw heated it. The dough, beaten very thin, was spread on the inside and almost immediately taken out, fully baked. In some places, a curved plate of iron is put over the sunken oven; but in cities the oven is a chamber of stone, from which the fire is raked when the oven is very hot and into which the unbaked loaves are then placed (Hos.7.4-Hos.7.7). See also [[Bread]]; [[Occupations and Professions]]: Baker.