1874-1948. Religious philosopher. Born in Kiev, he was early attracted to Marxism, and although he never repudiated his commitment, he was also a member of the [[Russian Orthodox Church]]. He was brought to trial by the church in 1914 for his nonconformist position in religious matters, and was saved from sentencing only by the onset of the Russian Revolution. Like other intellectuals during the early purges, he was expelled from his post as a professor of philosophy at Moscow University, and from the USSR in 1922, He went first to Berlin and then to Paris (1924) where he founded an academy for the study of philosophical problems.