New

NEW, NEWNESS (חָדָשׁ, H2543; καινός, G2785; νέος, G3742).

The Heb. terms.


The Gr. terms.



The usual explanation of the above passages by those who, like Trench, still maintain the distinction of meaning is that, although they may appear to be used synonymously, they are not actually being so used. Through the use of the two different words, the scriptural writers are attempting to make a distinction which, these scholars insist, must not be glossed over. ̓Αγναφος is another word for “new” used in Matthew 9:16 and Mark 2:21 and refers to new cloth, in the sense of unlaundered or unshrunk cloth. Πρόσφατος is used in Hebrews 10:20 with reference to the new way which Christ opened up into the Holy Place. The word itself means “newly slain” but here refers to the way as having been newly manifested or revealed.

Bibliography

R. Trench, Synonyms of the New Testament (1948), 219-225; W. Arndt and F. W. Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Early Christian Literature (1957), 394, 395, 537; G. Kittel, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, III (1965), 447-454.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)

Generally described, the "new man" is man as he becomes under the transforming power of the Holy Spirit, contrasted with man as he is by nature. The phrase has (1) its Biblical, and (2) its theological, meanings.

I. Biblical Meaning.

There are four Biblical contrasts which must be considered as opposites:

(1) the "old man" (palaios anthropos) and the "new man" (neos anthropos or kainos anthropos);

(2) the "outward man" (exoanthropos) and the "inward man" (esoanthropos);

(3) the "carnal man" (sarkikos anthropos) and the "spiritual man" (pneumatikos anthropos);

(4) the "natural man" (psuchikos anthropos) and the "spiritual man" (pneunatikos anthropos).

These are not four different sorts of men, but four different sorts of man. Take up these antitheses in their reverse order, so as to arrive at some clear and impressive conception of what the Biblical writer means by the "new man."

1. The Spiritual Man:


2. The Inward Man:

The "inward man" is a designation of human nature viewed as internally and centrally regenerated, as contrasted with the "outward man" (2Co 4:16; Ro 7:22; Eph 3:16). See Outward Man. This phrase indicates the whole human nature conceived as affected from within--in the secret, inside, and true springs of activity--by the Holy Spirit of God. Such a change--regeneration--is not superficial, but a change in the inner central self; not a mere external reformation, but an internal transformation. Grace operates not from the circumference toward the center, but from the center toward the circumference, of life. The product is a man renovated in his "inward parts," changed in the dynamic center of his heart.

3. The New Man:

The "new man" is an appellation yielded by the contrasted idea of the "old man" (Ro 6:6; Eph 4:22; Col 3:9; Eph 2:15; 4:24; Col 3:10). The "old" is "corrupt" and expresses itself in evil "deeds"; the "new" possesses the "image of God" and is marked by "knowledge," "righteousness," and "holiness." There are two Greek words for "new"--neos and kainos. The former means new in the sense of young, as the new-born child is a young thing; the latter means "new" in the sense of renovated, as when the house which has been rebuilt is called a new house. The converted man is "new" (neo-anthropos) in the sense that he is a "babe in Christ," and "new" (kaino-anthropos) in the sense that his moral nature is renovated and built over again.

In the nodetitle there are 5 different verbs used to express the action put forth in making the "old man" a "new man."

(1) In Eph 2:10 and 4:24, he is said to be "created" (ktizo), and in 2Co 5:17 the product is called a "new creature" (kaine kisis), a renovated creature. Out of the "old man" the Holy Spirit has created the "new man."

(2) In 1Pe 1:3,13 and elsewhere, he is said to be "begotten again" (anagennao), and the product is a "babe in Christ" (1Co 3:1). The "old man" thus becomes the "new man" by a spiritual begetting: his paternity is assigned to the Holy Ghost.

(3) In Eph 2:5 and elsewhere, he is said to be `quickened’ (zoopoieo), and the product is represented as a creature which has been made "alive from the dead" (Ro 6:13). The "old man," being `dead in trespasses and sins’ (Eph 2:1), is brought forth from his sin-grave by a spiritual resurrection.

(4) In Eph 4:23 he is represented as being made "young" (ananeoo), and the product is a child of the Spirit at the commencement of his religious experience. The "old man," dating his history back to the fall in Eden, has become, through the Spirit, a young man in Christ Jesus.

(5) In 2Co 4:16 and in Ro 12:2, he is said to be `renovated’ (anakainoo). The "old man" is renovated into the "new man." Sinful human nature is taken by the Spirit and morally recast.

II. Theological Meaning.

The "new man" is the converted, regenerated man. The phrase has its significance for the great theological doctrine of regeneration as it expands into the broad work of sanctification. Is the sinner dead? Regeneration is a new life. Is holiness non-existent in him? Regeneration is a new creation. Is he born in sin? Regeneration is a new birth. Is he determined by his fallen, depraved nature? Regeneration is a spiritual determination. Is he the subject of carnal appetites? Regeneration is a holy appetency. Is he thought of as the old sinful man? Regeneration is a new man. Is the sinful mind blind? Regeneration is a new understanding. Is the heart stony? Regeneration is a heart of flesh. Is the conscience seared? Regeneration is a good conscience. Is the will impotent? Regeneration is a new impotentiation. The regenerated man is a man with a new governing disposition--a "new man," an "inward man," a "spiritual man."

(1) The "New Man"--the Regenerate Man--Is Not a Theological Transubstantiation:

A being whose substance has been supernaturally converted into some other sort of substance.

(2) He Is Not a Scientific Transmutation:

A species of one kind which has been naturally evolved into a species of another kind.

(3) He Is Not a Metaphysical Reconstruction:

Being with a new mental equipment.

(4) He Is an Evangelical Convert:

An "old man" with a new regnant moral disposition, an "outward man" with a new inward fons et origo of moral life; a "natural man" with a new renovated spiritual heart.

See Natural Man; Regeneration.


nu, nu’-nes (chadhash; kainos, neos):

1. In the Old Testament:


Other words in the Old Testament for "new" are chadhath, Aramaic (Ezr 6:4); Tari, "fresh" (Jud 15:15, the Revised Version (British and American) "a fresh jawbone of an ass"); beri’ah, a "creation" (Nu 16:30, "if Yahweh make a new thing," the Revised Version margin "create a creation"); bakhar, "to be first-fruits" (Eze 47:12; so the Revised Version margin); qum, "setting," is translated "newly" (Jud 7:19); also miqqarobh, "recently" (De 32:17, the Revised Version (British and American) "of late "); news is shermu`ah, "report," "tidings"; Pr 25:25, "good news from a far country."

2. In the nodetitle:

In the New Testament "new" (mostly kainos, "new," "fresh," "newly made") is an important word. We have the title of the "New Testament" itself, rightly given by the American Standard Revised Version as "New Covenant," the designation of "the new dispensation" ushered in through Christ, the writings relating to which the volume contains. We have "new covenant" (kainos) in Lu 22:20, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood" (the English Revised Version margin "testament"; in Mt 26:28; Mr 14:24, "new" is omitted in the Revised Version (British and American), but in Matthew the margin "many ancient authorities insert new," and in Mark "some ancient authorities"); 1Co 11:25, the English Revised Version margin "or testament"; 2Co 3:6, the English Revised Version margin "or testament"; Heb 8:8, the English Revised Version margin "or testament"; in 8:13, "covenant" is supplied (compare Heb 12:24, neos).


The difference in meaning between kainos and neos, is, in the main, that kainos denotes new in respect of quality, "the new as set over against that which has seen service, the outworn, the effete, or marred through age"; neos, "new (in respect of time), that which has recently come into existence," e.g. kainon mnemeion, the "new tomb" in which Jesus was laid, was not one recently made, but one in which no other dead had ever lain; the "new covenant," the "new man," etc., may be contemplated under both aspects of quality and of time (Trench, Synonyms of the New Testament, 209 f).

In Mt 9:16; Mr 2:21, agnaphos, "unsmoothed," "unfinished," is translated "new," "new cloth," the Revised Version (British and American) "undressed." For "new bottles" (Lu 5:38 and parallels), the Revised Version (British and American) has "fresh wine-skins."