NEW, NEWNESS (חָדָשׁ, H2543; καινός, G2785; νέος, G3742).
The Heb. terms.
The Gr. terms.
The usual explanation of the above passages by those who, like Trench, still maintain the distinction of meaning is that, although they may appear to be used synonymously, they are not actually being so used. Through the use of the two different words, the scriptural writers are attempting to make a distinction which, these scholars insist, must not be glossed over. ̓Αγναφος is another word for “new” used in
R. Trench, Synonyms of the(1948), 219-225; W. Arndt and F. W. Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Early Christian Literature (1957), 394, 395, 537; G. Kittel, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, III (1965), 447-454.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)
Generally described, the "new man" is man as he becomes under the transforming power of the, contrasted with man as he is by nature. The phrase has (1) its Biblical, and (2) its theological, meanings.
I. Biblical Meaning.
There are four Biblical contrasts which must be considered as opposites:
(1) the "old man" (palaios anthropos) and the "new man" (neos anthropos or kainos anthropos);
(2) the "outward man" (exoanthropos) and the "inward man" (esoanthropos);
(3) the "carnal man" (sarkikos anthropos) and the "spiritual man" (pneumatikos anthropos);
(4) the "natural man" (psuchikos anthropos) and the "spiritual man" (pneunatikos anthropos).
These are not four different sorts of men, but four different sorts of man. Take up these antitheses in their reverse order, so as to arrive at some clear and impressive conception of what the Biblical writer means by the "new man."
The "inward man" is a designation of human nature viewed as internally and centrally regenerated, as contrasted with the "outward man" (
3. The New Man:
The "new man" is an appellation yielded by the contrasted idea of the "old man" (
In thethere are 5 different verbs used to express the action put forth in making the "old man" a "new man."
II. Theological Meaning.
The "new man" is the converted, regenerated man. The phrase has its significance for the great theological doctrine of regeneration as it expands into the broad work of sanctification. Is the sinner dead? Regeneration is a new life. Is holiness non-existent in him? Regeneration is a new creation. Is he born in sin? Regeneration is a new birth. Is he determined by his fallen, depraved nature? Regeneration is a spiritual determination. Is he the subject of carnal appetites? Regeneration is a holy appetency. Is he thought of as the old sinful man? Regeneration is a new man. Is the sinful mind blind? Regeneration is a new understanding. Is the heart stony? Regeneration is a heart of flesh. Is the conscience seared? Regeneration is a good conscience. Is the will impotent? Regeneration is a new impotentiation. The regenerated man is a man with a new governing disposition--a "new man," an "inward man," a "spiritual man."
(1) The "New Man"--the Regenerate Man--Is Not a Theological Transubstantiation:
A being whose substance has been supernaturally converted into some other sort of substance.
(2) He Is Not a Scientific Transmutation:
A species of one kind which has been naturally evolved into a species of another kind.
(3) He Is Not a Metaphysical Reconstruction:
Being with a new mental equipment.
(4) He Is an Evangelical Convert:
An "old man" with a new regnant moral disposition, an "outward man" with a new inward fons et origo of moral life; a "natural man" with a new renovated spiritual heart.
nu, nu’-nes (chadhash; kainos, neos):
1. In the:
Other words in the Old Testament for "new" are chadhath, Aramaic (
2. In the:
In the New Testament "new" (mostly kainos, "new," "fresh," "newly made") is an important word. We have the title of the "New Testament" itself, rightly given by the American Standard Revised Version as "
The difference in meaning between kainos and neos, is, in the main, that kainos denotes new in respect of quality, "the new as set over against that which has seen service, the outworn, the effete, or marred through age"; neos, "new (in respect of time), that which has recently come into existence," e.g. kainon mnemeion, the "new tomb" in which Jesus was laid, was not one recently made, but one in which no other dead had ever lain; the "new covenant," the "new man," etc., may be contemplated under both aspects of quality and of time (Trench, Synonyms of the New Testament, 209 f).