E. Griffith-Jones, “Nature and Natural Phenomena,” HDCG (1908), II, 233-235; W. F. Arndt and F. W. Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon of the(1957); M. H. Cressey, “Nature,” NBD (1962), 869, 870.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)
nat’-u-ral, na’-tur (leach; psuchikos, phusikos, phusis) :
1. As Used in the:
"Natural" is the translation of leach, "freshness or vigor" (
"Nature" in the sense of a system or constitution does not occur in the Old Testament. The world and men, each individual, were conceived as being the direct creation of a supra-mundane God, and conserved by His power and Spirit. The later conception of "nature" came in through Greek influences.
In the Apocrypha, we find "nature" in the sense of innate character or constitution (7:20, "the natures (phuseis) of living creatures"; The 13:1, "Surely vain are all men by nature" (phusei), 3 Macc 3:29, "mortal nature" (phusis)).
2. As Used in the:
See NATURAL, NATURE.