1. Occasions for mourning
b. National calamity. Mourning also comes to expression in a variety of situations other than death. Calamities that have overwhelmed the individual often are presented as occasions calling forth the most abject sorrow and grief (
Trouble and calamity which are threatening and impending also are occasions for mourning (
c. Before a calamity. The same behavior is found in all occasions for mourning. However, mourning in the actual presence of death is spontaneous emotional feeling whose expression custom rigidly prescribed, while the mourning associated with the prophetic prediction of national disaster is an activity which is motivated by the hope of altering the path of impending doom. The thought seems to be that to mourn before a disaster is better than mourning afterward, particularly if it is efficacious in averting the calamity. In an era when it was firmly and widely believed that God is present and that He controls the affairs of men, it can be seen that penitential mourning would be urged upon a nation by the prophets. As in the case of prayer, it was sincerely felt that mourning changes things. It would be one-sided, however, to think of these national expressions of mourning in the OT as hypocritical activities designed solely to change God’s mind. On the contrary, national mourning was intended also to be an expression of a heartfelt contrition at having ignored or violated the word of the Lord. To avoid the divine displeasure, return to compliance with God’s will was expressed by the ceremonies of mourning marking the death of that which had produced the divine disfavor. The prophet Joel shows the repentant attitude in mourning clearly when he calls for a mourning that is a rending of the heart, rather than a rending of the garment in order to persuade God to turn and repent (
David’s breach of custom in behaving in a mournful fashion before the death of Bathsheba’s child, instead of after his death, was prob. the definitive example that gave sincere mourning the purposeful character of influencing God rather than remaining simply a spontaneous manifestation of grief (
2. Mourning customs
Prohibited from being a part of the Jewish mourning rites were certain practices found among pagan neighbors, e.g., gashing the flesh or shaving the head or beard (
“Rending of the garments,” or tearing a slit in the bottom of an item of apparel, was a universal sign among the Hebrews signifying grief and distress (
c. Formal lamentations. In the later part of the OT paid professional mourners, generally female, take an important place in the mourning rituals. Known as “mourning women” or “skillful women” (
3. The meaning of mourning. Various explanations are given of mourning. Some speak of the mourning rituals as a token of submission to the dead who are thought to have power to help or hurt the living; others argue that men are disguising themselves from a god or spirits of the dead who may otherwise choose them next after having struck so close (SHERK, vol. 8, 31, 32). Undoubtedly the Heb. customs were closely related to the universal tradition of the ancient near-oriental peoples, but there is no foundation in the Scriptures for holding that these outward practices represented any form of a cult for the dead.
In the OT the outward signs of mourning were called for in situations of repentance and supplication as well as sorrow. This would indicate that the rituals were more than natural expressions of sorrow. Paul’s words to the Thessalonians, “that you may not grieve as others do who have no hope” (
Bibliography W. Nowack, “Mourning and Mourning Customs,” A Standard Bible Dictionary (1909), 562, 563; R. Zehnpfund, “Mourning Customs, Hebrew,” SHERK, vol. 8 (1910), 31, 32; G. Stahlin, “θρηνέω, G2577,” TDNT, vol. 3 (1933), 148-155; J. Pedersen, Israel, vols. 3, 4 (1940), 455-458; T. H. Gaster, Customs and Folkways of Jewish Life (1955), 137-177; R. deVaux, AIs (1961), 56-61; E. Jacob, “Mourning,” IDB, vol. 3 (1962), 452-454.
See BURIAL; GRIEF.