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MITHRADATES mĭth rə dā’ tēz, ancient Iranian name, “Gift of Mithra,” and the name of seven kings of the Arsacid dynasty, the kings of Parthia. Two Pers. officials of this name are mentioned in the OT (Ezra 1:8; 4:7) under a Sem. variant of the name (Heb. מִתְרְדָ֣ת). In the Apocryphal book of 1 Esdras 2:11, 16, the official of Ezra 4 is called Mithradates, which is correct. The Romans fought a series of three wars against Mithradates VI Eupator, called “the Great,” between 88-64 b.c. This war prohibited the Romans from taking effective control over Pal. until 63 b.c. Although Pers., the Mithradatid rulers were Hel. in outlook, and preserved the Hel. age in Syria-Palestine for a cent. after the other Hel. kingdoms had fallen to Rome.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)

(Codex Alexandrinus Mithradates; Codex Vaticanus Mithridates; the King James Version Mithridates):

(1) The treasurer of Cyrus to whom the king committed the vessels which had been taken from the temple and who delivered them to the governor, Sanabassar (1 Esdras 2:11 equals "Mithredath" of Ezr 1:8).

(2) Apparently another person of the same name--one of the commissioners stationed in Samaria who wrote a letter to Artaxerxes persuading him to put a stop to the rebuilding of Jerusalem (1 Esdras 2:16 equals "Mithredath" of Ezr 4:7).

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