Mazzaroth

MAZZAROTH măz’ ə rŏth (מַזָּרֹ֣ות), a term appearing as a hapax legomenon in Job 38:32 in a parallel poetic construction as an “A” word with עַ֗יִשׁ, “constellation of the Bear,” so that it must refer to some sidereal phenomenon. The form in Job 38:32 is fem., but the form of the same term in Job 37:9 is masc., where it is traditionally thought to refer to the Hyades. A slight variant of the term occurs in 2 Kings 23:5 (מַזָּלֹ֔ות, “sign of the zodiac,” “constellation”). This term also refers to some as yet unidentified constellation; some have proposed a nebula. Many interpretations of these terms have been suggested over the centuries, the greater number of which have been based upon folk-etymologies or some comparative religions method. However, when it is noted that the alteration from resh to lamed and vice versa is common in the Sem. languages, then the variant forms of this difficult term in the MT become highly probable.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)

maz’-a-roth: The 12 constellations of the Zodiac.

See Astronomy, sec. II, 12.