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MATTANIAH măt’ a nī a (מַתַּנְיָ֛ה, and מַתַּנְיָ֡הוּ; LXX Μαθθανίας; gift of the Lord). 1. A son of King Josiah of Judah. When his nephew Jehoiachin surrendered to Nebuchadnezzar, Mattaniah was crowned king, his name becoming Zedekiah, the last king of Judah (2 Kings 24:12-17).

2. Heman’s son, a singer of David’s time, made head of the ninth lot of the 288 skilled musicians (1 Chron 25:4, 16).

3. An Asaphite Levite (2 Chron 20:14), apparently the same as in 1 Chronicles 9:15 and Nehemiah 11:17, 22; 12:8, 25.

4. Another Asaphite Levite, aid to Hezekiah in his great religious reform (2 Chron 29:13).

5. A son of Elam (Ezra 10:26).

6. A son of Zattu (10:27).

7. A son of Pahath-moab (10:30).

8. A son of Bani (10:37).

9. An Asaphite, chief of thanksgiving in prayer (Neh 11:17, 22; 12:8, 25).

10. A Levite whose grandson, Hanan, kept and distributed Levitical stores (13:13).

Note: 3 and 9 may be the same.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)

(mattanyaha, "gift of Yah"):

(1) King Zedekiah’s original name, but changed by Nebuchadnezzar when he made him king over Judah instead of his nephew Jehoiachin (2Ki 24:17).

(2) A descendant of Asaph (1Ch 9:15), leader of the temple choir (Ne 11:17; 12:8). Mentioned among the "porters," keepers of "the storehouses of the gates" (Ne 12:25), and again in Ne 12:35 as among the "priests’ sons with trumpets."

(3) May be the same as (2), though in 2Ch 20:14 he is mentioned as an ancestor of that Jahaziel whose inspired words in the midst of the congregation encouraged Jehoshaphat to withstand the invasion of Moab, Ammon and Seir (20:14 ff).

(4-7) Four others who had foreign wives,

(a) the Matthanias of 1 Esdras 9:27 (Ezr 10:26);

(b) the Othonias of 1 Esdras 9:28 (Ezr 10:27);

(c) the Matthanias of 1 Esdras 9:31 (Ezr 10:30);

(d) the fourth of these in 1 Esdras 9:34 the King James Version has had his name blended into that of Mattenai, and the two appear as the composite name Mamnitanemus (Ezr 10:37). He is a son of Bani.

(8) A Levite, father of Zaccur, ancestor of Hanan the under-treasurer of the Levitical offerings under Nehemiah (Ne 13:13).

(9) One of the sons of Heman the singer, whose office it was to blow the horns in the temple-service as David had appointed it (1Ch 25:4,5). He was head of the 9th division of the 12 Levites (1Ch 25:16), who were proficient in the Songs of Yahweh (1Ch 25:7).

(10) One of the sons of Asaph who helped Hezekiah in the fulfilling of his vow to cleanse the house of the Lord (2Ch 29:13).