1843-1901. Bishop of London, and historian. Born at Carlisle, and educated at the universities of Durham and Oxford, he taught history at Oxford, was ordained in 1873, and in 1875 became vicar of Embleton in Northumberland. Nine years later he was appointed Dixie professor of ecclesiastical history at Cambridge, and in 1891 was consecrated bishop of Peterborough. In 1897 he was translated to the see of London, where the popular lecturer and erudite scholar exercised a valuable moderating influence in controversies of the day, particularly in connection with the vexed question of ritualism. His many writings include a biography of Cardinal Wolsey (1888), but he is best known for his (unfinished) History of the Papacy (5 vols., 1882-94).