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MAGOG (mā'gŏg, Heb. māghôgh, land of God?). A son of Japheth (Gen.10.2; 1Chr.1.5). Josephus and Greek writers generally applied this name to the Scythians. Some modern Christian writers indicate the Tartars of Russia and of southern Europe. The names of King Gog, “prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal” (Ezek.38.2; see niv footnote) resemble the modern Russia, Moscow, and Tobolsk. “The nations in the four corners of the earth—Gog and Magog” (Rev.20.8) means all the ungodly nations of the earth who oppose the people of God.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)

Named among the sons of Japheth (Ge 10:2; 1Ch 1:5). Ezekiel uses the word as equivalent to "land of Gog" (Eze 38:2; 39:6). Josephus identifies the Magogites with the Scythians (Ant., I, vi, 1). From a resemblance between the names Gog and Gyges (Gugu), king of Lydia, some have suggested that Magog is Lydia; others, however, urge that Magog is probably only a variant of Gog (Sayce in HDB). In the Apocalypse of John, Gog and Magog represent all the heathen opponents of Messiah (Re 20:8), and in this sense these names frequently recur in Jewish apocalyptic literature.

John A. Lees