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  • Lucifer. KJV form of Day Star. The morning star, an epithet of the planet Venus. See Astronomy. Devil, Satan.

  • a.d. 370/1. Bishop of Cagliari and strong opponent of Arianism. He was one of the envoys of Pope Liberius to Emperor Constantius in 354, requesting a council to confirm adherence to the Nicene position and to settle the question of Athanasius. The council met at Milan (355) and there, with a few others, Lucifer fiercely resisted the emperor's wishes and refused to sign the condemnation of Athanasius. He was sent into exile, but had to be moved several times in an unsuccessful attempt to silence him. During this period he wrote five aggressive pamphlets to Constantius, revealing a dualistic concept of church and state and arguing that the emperor should be subordinate to the church. On his release, by Julius, he impetuously bypassed the deliberations of the Council of Alexandria (362) and traveled to Antioch to try to deal with the schism. There he consecrated Paulinus as bishop and thus effectively undermined the conciliatory plans of the council and its emissary to Antioch, Eusebius of Vercilli. Incensed by their compromise, he separated himself from them, and a small band of Luciferians sprang up. Lucifer returned to Sardinia and may have died excommunicate. His writings are also important because of the evidence they give as to the pre-Jerome biblical text.