KIDRON. KJV Apoc. form of Kedron.
KIDRON kĭd’ rən (קִדְרֹ֔ון, dark, turbid); CEDRON se’ drən (Κεδρών, G3022, KJV only in
Jerusalem itself is located on the central limestone ridge of Pal. c. 2500 ft. above sea level at a place where the ridge has become a small plateau. Extending S from this plateau are two promontories, separated by a valley called in Rom. times the Tyropoeon Valley (now called El-Wad) but which today is largely filled with debris. The western side later became known as Zion and the eastern side was Ophel (). East of Ophel, separating it from the Mount of Olives is the Kidron Valley, through which an intermittent spring, the Gihon, courses. It was once the source of Jerusalem’s main water supply. It is now called Ain Sitti Maryam, or “Spring of Mary.” Water flows through it only during the season of heavy rains in the winter. To the S, where the Kidron and Hinnom Valleys meet, is a second spring, En-Rogel.
Charles Warren (c. 1870) discovered a shaft cut through the rock from the city to the spring, similar to the one at Gezer, which enabled the inhabitants to secure water without going outside the city. The waters of the Gihon spring were diverted through a tunnel to a cave which served as a reservoir. Going up from this was a vertical shaft about forty ft. high, at the top of which was a platform where the women could stand to lower and raise their water vessels. This water system was prob. in use when the Jebusites occupied Jerusalem through the period of the Judges to the time of David. The water was later diverted by a rock tunnel to the pool of Siloam (prob. during the reign of Hezekiah).
The Davidic kings owned property in the valley which caused it to be known as the King’s Valley. As David fled from Absalom, he crossed over the Kidron (
The portion of the valley on the E side has been used as a common burial ground from ancient times even until today. Perhaps for this reason one finds that idols, altars, images, and the Asherah were taken from the Temple and burned here as a part of the reform of various kings (Asa,
Herod restored the Temple during his reign and greatly enlarged the surrounding area by erecting new foundation walls. At its outermost pinnacle (cf.
Gethsemane was on the western slope of the Mount of Olives, just across from the brook Kidron away from the city of Jerusalem. From the western descent of the Mount of Olives one has a view directly across the Kidron Valley to Jerusalem. Jesus crossed the Kidron Valley with His disciples after leaving the
Jeremiah looked forward from his time to the day when the city of Jerusalem would be rebuilt and the places of burial, including the fields as far as the brook Kidron, would be sacred to God (
J. Finegan, Light From the Ancient Past (1946), 149, 159, 236; G. E. Wright, Biblical Archaeology (1957), 126, 221; M. Noth, TheWorld (1966), 155, 169, 171, 221.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)
A place which, in obedience to Antiochus Sidetes, Cendebaeus fortified (1 Macc 15:39 ff), to which, when defeated, he fled, hotly pursued by John and Judas, sons of Simon the Maccabee, who burned the city (1 Macc 16:4 ff). It is named along with Jamnia (Yebna) and Azotus (Esdud). It is possibly identical with Katrah], a village about 3 miles Southwest of `Aqir (Ekron).