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JESHUA, JESHUAH (jĕsh'ū-a, Heb. yēshūa‘, another form of Joshua, Jehovah is salvation)

The Heb. text of Haggai and Zechariah spells the name of the high priest as Jehoshua (Eng. tr. Joshua), not Jeshua as in Ezra and Nehemiah. The name has an interesting history. The son of Nun appears first as Joshua (Exod 17:9), but in Numbers 13:16 (cf. v. 8), one reads that Moses changed his name from Hoshea (KJV, Oshea), meaning “Save” to Jehoshua, meaning “Yahweh is salvation,” making the name theophorous, which is the name usually given to the son of Nun. Joshua is used in Haggai and Zechariah as the name of the current high priest. In the exilic period the shorter form of the name (Jeshua, meaning “salvation”) came into use in the postexilic books, except Haggai and Zechariah. Joshua the son of Nun was called Jeshua in Nehemiah 8:17. The name appears in the LXX as lēsous, which is the regular spelling of the name of Jesus the Messiah in the Gr. NT. The NT name of the son of Nun is “Jesus” in KJV (Acts 7:45; Heb 4:8).

The name Jeshua was given to seven other men beside the high priest of Ezra’s time, the most important of whom apparently were: the priest whose ancestor was chief of one of the twenty-four courses established by David (1 Chron 24:11), 973 of whose descendants returned to Jerusalem under Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:36; cf. 2:6); a Jeshua who was the first named of thirteen Levites who, with others not named, explained the law to the people in the days of Nehemiah (Neh 11:26).

The change of the name of Hoshea to Joshua by Moses may throw light upon the fact that names compounded with Yahweh were relatively rare in the period of the Exodus. Moses may have wished to popularize such a custom by changing the name of his “minister” to Jehoshua. Moses’ mother’s name was Jochebed, which means “Yahweh is glorious” (Exod 6:20; Num 26:59). Conceivably this may have influenced Moses concerning the use of such names.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)

jesh’-u-a, je-shu’-a (yeshua`): A place occupied by the children of Judah after their return from captivity (Ne 11:26), evidently, from the places named with it, in the extreme South of Judah. It may correspond with the Shema of Jos 15:26, and possibly to the Sheba of 19:2. The site may be Khirbet Sa`weh, a ruin upon a prominent hill, Tell es Sa`weh, 12 miles East-Northeast of Beersheba. The hill is surrounded by a wall of large blocks of stone. PEF, III, 409-10, Sh XXV.

jesh’-u-a, je-shu’-a (yeshua`, "Yahweh is deliverance" or "opulence"; compare JOSHUA):

(1) the King James Version "Jeshuah," head of the 9th course of priests, and possibly of "the house of Jeshua" (1Ch 24:11; Ezr 2:36; Ne 7:39).

(2) A Levite of Hezekiah’s time (2Ch 31:15).

(4) A man of Pahath-moab, some of whose descendants returned from Babylon to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel (Ezr 2:6; Ne 7:11) = "Jesus" (1 Esdras 58).

(6) Father of Ezer, a repairer of the wall (Ne 3:19).

(7) JOSHUA, son of Nun (Ne 8:17) (which see).