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Jehovah’s Witnesses

This movement originated with C.T. Russell* as the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society and the International Bible Students Association-not to be confused with the International Bible Readers Association. The title of Jehovah's Witnesses was assumed in 1931 under Russell's successor, J.F. Rutherford.* On the death of the latter in 1942 the leadership passed to Nathan H. Knorr (b.1905). Theologically Jehovah's Witnesses resemble Arians in their view that the Son was the first and highest created being. He is identified with Michael the Archangel. When he became man, he became only man, and although at his resurrection he was exalted above the angels as a spirit being, his body remained dead, although it was removed from sight by Jehovah. Christ's appearances were “in materialized bodies.” The holy spirit is the active force of God. As a perfect man Jesus died to ransom all the descendants of Adam from the physical death which Adam's sin had inflicted on them. “As a childless man his u