HILKIAH (hĭl-kī'a, Heb. hilqîyâh, the portion of Jehovah). The name of seven persons, mostly priests, in Israel:
1. The father of Eliakim who was manager of Hezekiah’s household (2Kgs.18.18).
2. A Merarite Levite (1Chr.6.45).
3. Another Merarite, doorkeeper in David’s time (1Chr.26.11).
4. The high priest in the days of Josiah, king of Judah. He found the Book of the Law (thought by many to have been the Book of Deuteronomy) while cleaning the temple and sent it to Josiah (2Kgs.22.1-2Kgs.22.20; 2Chr.34.1-2Chr.34.33).
5. A priest who returned to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel, 536 b.c. (Neh.12.7).
6. The father of Jeremiah. He lived at Anathoth (Jer.1.1).
7. The father of Gemariah (Jer.29.3), a priest who stood with Ezra at the Bible reading (Neh.8.4).
2. Another Merarite Levite, son of Hosah (1 Chron 26:11). He was a contemporary of David.
3. Father of Eliakim, who was “over the household” of King Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:18, 26; Isa 22:20; 36:3).
4. The father of the prophet Jeremiah (Jer 1:1). He was prob. descended from Abiathar, David’s high priest, who was removed from office by Solomon for supporting Adonijah. He was a member of a priestly family at Anathoth (1 Kings 2:26).
5. Father of Jeremiah’s contemporary Gemariah (Jer 29:3). He acted as ambassador from King Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar.
6. The high priest in the time of Josiah, whom he helped in his religious reforms. He found the book of the law in the Temple (2 Kings 22:4-14; 23:4; 1 Chron 6:13; 2 Chron 34:9-22).
7. A chief of the priests who returned to Judaea with Zerubbabel and Joshua (Neh 12:7).
8. One of those who stood with Ezra when he read the law to the people from a wooden pulpit (Neh 8:4).
9. An ancestor of Baruch, the servant of Jeremiah (Baruch 1:1, 7).
10. The father of Susanna (Sus 2, 29, 63).
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)
The name of 8 individuals in the Old Testament or 7, if the person mentioned in Ne 12:7,21 was the same who stood with Ezra at the reading of the Law (Ne 8:4). The latter appears as Ezecias (the King James Version) in 1 Esdras 9:43. Five of this name are clearly associated with the priesthood, and the others are presumably so. The etymology suggests this. Either interpretation of the name expresses the person’s claim on Yahweh or the parents’ recognition of Yahweh’s claim on him.
(1) The person mentioned above (Ne 8:4, etc.).
(2) A Levite of the sons of Merari (1Ch 6:45).
(3) Another Levite of Merari, son of Hosah (1Ch 26:11). Is he the "porter," i.e. "doorkeeper" of 1Ch 16:38?
(4) Father of the Gemariah whom Zedekiah of Judah sent to Nebuchadnezzar (Jer 29:3).
(5) The man in 2Ki 18:18 ff who is evidently more famous as the father of Eliakim, the majordomo of Hezekiah’s palace (Isa 22:20 ff; 36:3 ). Probably the father’s name is given in this and similar cases to distinguish between two persons of otherwise identical name.
(6) A priest of Anathoth, father of Jeremiah (Jer 1:1).
(7) The son of Shallum, and the best known of the name (1Ch 6:13). He is great-grandfather of Ezra through his son Azariah (1 Esdras 8:1; compare 1Ch 9:11; Ne 11:11). He discovered the lost Book of the Law during the repairing of the Temple (2Ki 22:4,8 ); became chief leader in the ensuing reformation in 621 BC (2Ki 23:4; 2Ch 34:9 ff; 35:8). He showed the recovered book to Shaphan the scribe, who, in turn, brought it to the notice of the king. At Josiah’s request he led a deputation to Huldah the prophetess to "inquire of the Lord" concerning the new situation created by the discovery. The book discovered is usually identified with the Book of Deuteronomy.