1834-1903. German Protestant theologian. He became professor of theology at the University of Greifswald (1870), combining this with a city pastorate which he held until his death, refusing further preferment. He strongly resisted the liberalizing movement in theology. In his Die paulinische Rechtfertigungslehre im Zusammenhange ihrer geschichtlichen Voraussetzungen (1899), he reaffirmed a traditional interpretation of Paul's soteriology. In this work also, with what W. Eichrodt called “the insight of genius,” he described “righteousness” as a “term of relation,” being apparently among the earliest to do so. His best-known work was Biblisch-theologisches Wörterbuch (ET Biblico-Theological Lexicon of Greek, 1878), in which he theologically defined Greek words and terms used in the NT.