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1571-1622. Puritan divine. Educated at Caius College, Cambridge, he became a separatist* and fled to Holland, where he became first a porter to a bookseller and then teacher to a London congregation which had reassembled in Amsterdam under the pastorship of Francis Johnson. He drew up a confession of faith, and with Johnson wrote in 1604 a Defence of the Brownists. Ainsworth was a good scholar, learned particularly in Hebrew and rabbinism. Though a controversialist, he was gentle by the standards of the time in his replies to John Ainsworth who had joined the Roman Church, to Richard Bernard, and to . Later he parted from Johnson over principles of church government (Ainsworth leaned to congregationalist principles). He established a considerable scholarly reputation for his Annotations on various OT books, the whole Pentateuch, the Psalms, and the , which first appeared separately and then in collected form in 1627, and was reprinted later.