1881-1935. Biblical scholar. Born in Leipzig, he began his teaching career as a private tutor in his home city. In 1914 he became a professor of biblical literature in Leyden; in 1929 he moved to Kiel, and in 1935 to Halle. He was a leading member of the Religionsgeschichtliche Schule (History of Religion School, i.e., the use of comparative religious material in the interpretation of Christianity). His publications were either commentaries on books of the NT (e.g., on 2 Corinthians and Hebrews), expositions of parts of the Bible (e.g., The Meaning of the , 1929), or studies of early Christian thought (e.g., Baptism and Sin in Primitive Christianity, 1908; and Philo's piety and its significance for Christianity, 1909).