A theological movement which flourished in the [[Dutch Reformed Church]] in the middle third of the nineteenth century. Dissatisfied with the formalistic religious establishment of the day, but opposed both to the conservative and pietistic approach of the “Awakening” (Réveil*) and to the rising influence of dogmatic liberalism, it tried to revive the humanistic and evangelical emphasis of earlier figures such as Coornheert* and Erasmus.* P.W. Van Heusde, who taught philosophy from a Christian Platonist standpoint at Utrecht, inspired most of the leaders of the movement, who gathered at the theological faculty at Groningen. Petrus Hofstede De Groot was the leader of the group; other prominent figures included W. Muurling, H. Muntinghe, L.G. Pareau, and J.F. Van Oordt.