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For the genealogies of Jesus Christ see Genealogy of Jesus Christ. Other NT persons generally appear without indication of their descent. Occasionally the father is named (e.g., “James and John, the sons of Zebedee,” Luke.5.10). Paul cherished his pure Hebrew descent (Phil.3.4-Phil.3.5). The genealogies of 1Tim.1.4 and Titus.3.9 are sometimes thought to refer to a pagan Gnostic series of beings intermediate between God and the created earth. However, it is more likely that the rabbinic overconcern with human genealogies is meant, because the false teachers seem to be Jewish and the term “genealogies” is not used by pagan authors of the pagan Gnostic series.

It is certain that the NT shows far less concern for the genealogy of human beings than does the OT. In the OT, God was bringing together a chosen people who would be a nation peculiarly devoted to preserving his revelation until, in the fullness of time, he sent his Son, who would draw to himself a new people, united not by descent from a common human ancestry but by a genealogy of one generation only: children of God by a new and spiritual birth.

Bibliography: J. Pedersen, Israel, Its Life and Culture, vol. 1, 1926, p. 257; J. O. Buswell, Jr., A Systematic Theology of the Christian Religion, vol. 1, 1962, pp. 325-43; M. D. Johnson, The Purpose of Biblical Genealogies, 1969; R. R. Wilson, Genealogy and History in the Biblical World, 1977.——ER

GENEALOGY je ne ŏl’ ə je (יַ֫חַשׂ, H3510; γενεαλογία, γένεσις, genealogy, to reckon by genealogy, generation). The ancestry or descent of individuals in the Biblical record.


Genealogies are often given in the Bible and have various uses in the unfolding story of redemption. Inasmuch as history necessarily clusters around great men, the connected history of God’s dealing with men involves listing men in their connections with others of various ages. Genealogies and chronologies form the connecting link from early days to the end of the Biblical period. Usually other ancient histories are partial and piecemeal. By means of genealogical records, God has given a connected history from Adam to Christ.

Genealogies also have lesser uses in the sacred record. God’s blessings were often passed on in the family line and these genealogies express the covenant connections of ancient Israel. Military duty was by families. Certain offices such as the priesthood, the Levitical work, and the kingship, were hereditary, and genealogies trace the perpetuation of these offices. Also, land tenure in Israel was carried on chiefly through male descent. Genealogies therefore certified the title to ancestral holdings. Finally, in a tribal or semitribal community, a man’s genealogy was his identification and means of location. It is roughly equal to the addresses of modern houses. People are located by country, state, city, and street. In a similar way, Achan, for example, was identified as of the tribe of Judah, the family of Zerah, the household of Zabdi, the son of Carmi (Josh 7:17, 18). Such a brief genealogy gave only the first two or three and the last two or three links of the man’s ancestry.

Principal genealogies of Scripture.

The ancient history of the race is compressed into the first chs. of Genesis. Except for a few incidents, this history consists of the listing of famous men and nations. There are two genealogies before the Flood (Gen 4; 5) and two after (Gen 10:11). These genealogies have been the subject of much study because of their importance and their position at the head of Bible history.

Genesis 5 and 11 are obviously similar, giving the line from Adam to Noah and from Noah to Abraham. Each ch. gives the age of a man at the birth of his son and the years that remained to him thereafter. Each genealogy consists of ten links (remembering that LXX and Luke record a son, Cainan, after Shem) followed by a family of three sons who were not triplets, though the record refers to them as born at the same time. It is natural to believe that these genealogies are schematic, naming only the chief men in easily memorizable form. That they are true genealogies, giving the descent of ancient men, there is no reason to doubt. It will be considered later whether or not they are complete. These genealogies are compared by some to the lists recorded on Sumer. tablets of the kings who reigned before and after the Flood. There is no similarity in names. The reigns of the Sumer. kings are extremely long; those after the Flood progressively shorter until the last few reigns are nearer the normal. The last links name a king or two who are historically known. Some have held that the Biblical lists derive from the Sumer. and thus are legendary. It seems just as possible to believe that both lists derive from the ancient tradition of the race and represent early tradition. The Biblical tradition is much more believable and by God’s providence and inspiration has preserved the true outlines of the past.

The genealogies in Genesis 4 and 10 are different from those in chs. 5 and 11. Genesis 10 is frequently called the “Table of Nations,” tracing the expanding migrations of the various sons of Noah and their successors. It can be shown that these successors are not given in straight genealogical lines. These are colonizations of peoples rather than merely lists of descendants. For instance the “sons” of Ham (Gen 10:6) include the Ethiopians, Egyptians, Libyans (prob.), and the Canaanites, a wide variety of peoples. The Canaanites themselves included Sidon, a city; Heth, progenitor of the Indo-European Hittites; the Amorites, a Semitic people; and others. That Canaan begot Sidon his first-born is not intended to be a reference to sonship, but an indication that the city Sidon was peopled early in the history of the land of Canaan. The chapter is aptly called “the earliest ethnological table in the literature of the ancient world” (New Scofield Reference Bible [1967], p. 15).

Actually this difference between chs. 10 and 11 of Genesis is borne out by the Heb. wording. In Genesis 10, the word “begot” represents a different form of this Heb. verb without the causative element. It usually refers to a mother bearing a child. It also refers to Moses as fig. begetting Israel (Num 11:12) or God bearing Israel (Deut 32:18), or God begetting the Messiah (Ps 2:7). The word when used of men apparently is used of general relationships, as expressed in Genesis 10, the Table of Nations and not literal fatherhood.

The same remarks apply to Genesis 4:17-22. The so-called genealogy of Cain includes doubtless some names of individuals who are progenitors of races and craftsmen, and who founded cities bearing their own names. The comparison with Genesis 10 and the fact that the same Heb. verb form is used in both cases makes it apparent that the list of names in Genesis 4 also includes peoples and movements.

In the rest of the Pentateuch there are many shorter genealogies. These genealogies usually first present a brief reference to the worldly descendants, followed by a more detailed history of the godly line.

Abraham’s family outside of Isaac is given very briefly in Genesis 25. This is followed by the family of Isaac (Gen 25:19). The chief men in the family of Esau are listed in ch. 36, followed by the family of Jacob in Genesis 46. Part of this genealogy of Jacob is repeated (Exod 6:14-25), but the family of Levi is expanded there to give the genealogy of Moses, the son of Amram, son of Kohath, son of Levi. It is clear that Kohath was actually one of Levi’s three sons and head of a clan. Amram was possibly Moses’ own father and head of a household. There were intervening links between Kohath and Amram because by Moses’ day the Levites numbered 22,000 males (Num 3:39). Many generations must have intervened. But the ancestry of Moses given in Exodus 6 places him within the tribe of Levi.

The history of the time of the judges is given in a chronological rather than genealogical format. The judgeship was not hereditary but charismatic, i.e., God individually called the judges to their tasks. The period of the judges is spanned by one brief genealogy—that at the end of the Book of Ruth. Actually Ruth is a book belonging in the time of the judges and in old Heb. listings was counted as a part of Judges. In Ruth 4:18-22, the line of Ruth’s husband, Boaz, is traced back to Perez, the son of Judah, and onward to David the great king. This genealogy, repeated in Chronicles and the NT, is our only record of the detailed ancestry of Israel’s chief monarch. This genealogy is incomplete, however. It speaks of Nahshon, the chief prince of Judah in Moses’ day (Num 2:3). His son, Boaz’ father, is given as Salmon, whereas Ruth 2:1 says Boaz was of the family of Elimelech. Clearly there were other intervening links between Nahshon and Boaz and prob. more than two links between Boaz and David.

For the history of the monarchy, the only genealogy of any extent is that of King David, whose line is traced in the books of Kings through eighteen generations to the captivity. The genealogy of the high priests is not given in the histories, though it was known and is given in the collected genealogies of Chronicles. The genealogies of the prophets are not given, for like that of the judges, their office was charismatic and not hereditary.

The remaining genealogies of any consequence in the OT are those of Ezra (Ezra 7:1-5), Joshua, the high priest (Neh 12:10, 11), and those remarkable lists of names in 1 Chronicles 1-9 where many previous genealogies are brought together and others are added.

1 Chronicles 1 comes straight out of Genesis, usually quoted directly from the early genealogies. Following this are genealogies of the twelve tribes as far as they are preserved, in this order: Judah, Simeon, Reuben, Gad, Levi, Issachar, Benjamin, Naphtali, Ephraim, Asher, and Benjamin. Dan and Zebulun, tribes of the extreme N, are missing, though some have surmised that the second mention of Benjamin is a copyist’s mistake for Zebulun; this is, however, questionable.

Many of the names and the incidental references to habitation and family events are found only in Chronicles. The author (now admitted by many critical scholars to have written c. 400 b.c.) obviously had access to ancient books of genealogies. Such books are referred to in Nehemiah 7:5, 64 and Ezra 2:62. It is quite possible that the author of Chronicles (Ezra or Nehemiah?) copied out of the book that Nehemiah had found. As is to be expected, some of the names are slightly different from those in the older lists. In some cases there may have been alternate names for a man. In other cases the names have suffered slightly in copying. This precise copying of names and numbers was notoriously difficult.

In American culture, genealogies are seldom kept, but in other cultures genealogies are more extensively preserved. The writer has had students from Korea and from India who possessed family records back forty generations and felt this to be not unusual. He has talked with an Arab in Jerusalem who named his child Edessa because his ancestors suffered in the persecutions of Edessa (3rd cent.). Such genealogies were kept even more in ancient times. A man living in China claims to be the seventy-seventh in direct descent from Confucius. In tribal cultures and in the settled life of ancient nations, such genealogies were apparently common.

The genealogies of Christ are recorded in Matthew 1 and Luke 3. Joseph and Mary were prob. well aware of their ancestry. The two lists differ after the mention of David, and some have found here a contradiction. Others have suggested that the genealogy in Matthew is that of Joseph; the one in Luke is of Mary (cf. the excellent treatment of Luke’s genealogy in John Lightfoot’s commentary, Hours with the Hebrew and Talmud, Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae [1859], in loc.). It appears that Mary is enigmatically referred to as the daughter of Heli in the Talmud (quoted by Lightfoot also in H. L. Strack and P. Billerbeck, Kommentar zum Neuen Testament II [1929], p. 155). Joseph apparently was the son-in-law of Heli. But the genealogy of Joseph in Matthew loses its point, for Joseph was not the biological father of Jesus. Comparison with 1 Chronicles 3:19, however, will indicate that Matthew’s list is not a true genealogy. Matthew 1:12 says Salathiel begat Zerubbabel. 1 Chronicles 3:19 shows that Salathiel died without children and Zerubbabel was actually his nephew. This was uncommon in a usual genealogy, but it was frequent in lists including men who claimed the title to a throne. If the kingly line ran out, the nearest male relative assumed the title. Thus the “genealogy” in Matthew is a list of the heirs to the throne of Judah. Joseph had that title and passed that title on to his foster son, Jesus. It has further been pointed out that Joseph had the title to the throne of Judah, but being descended from Jehoiachin he could not reign, as he lay under Jeremiah’s curse (Jer 22:30). Jesus as the foster son received Joseph’s title to the crown, but being born of the virgin Mary He escaped Joseph’s curse. (For other views, cf. J. G. Machen, The Virgin Birth of Christ [1930], 204-209.)

Genealogies incomplete.

As mentioned above, it is clear that many OT genealogies are incomplete. There are four links from Levi to Moses (Exod 6:16-20), but the descendants of Levi in Moses’ day were 22,000 males (Num 3:39). The genealogy from Ephraim, Levi’s nephew, to Joshua seems to show eighteen links (1 Chron 7:20-27). In the NT Matthew 1:1 names just three links from Christ to Abraham. The full genealogy, or list of kings (Matt 1:2-17), omits the names of Ahaziah, Joash and Amaziah and also Jehoiakim, in contrast to the lists of kings in the OT. The genealogy of Ezra (Ezra 7:1-5) has only five links from 456 b.c. back to Zadok, David’s high priest in about 960 b.c. Obviously, only the more famous men are mentioned.

These facts are necessary to know before examining the genealogies in Genesis 5 and 11. Attention already has been called to their schematic form. The assumption that the post diluvian genealogy is complete leads to some strange results. For example, the years given from the birth of a father to the birth of his son total 292 years from the Flood to the birth of Abraham, 467 years to his death. Shem lived 502 years after the Flood. Noah lived 350 years after the Flood, and he would have been a contemporary of Abraham. Arphaxad, Shem’s son, also lived until Abraham was 148 years old. Yet the record of Abraham says nothing about any contact with these ancient worthies. The record implies that Noah and his sons were long gone before Abraham was told to leave his kindred and start fresh in Canaan. Also the numerous peoples pictured as recolonizing the world (Gen 10) could hardly have repopulated and spread so widely in ten generations. It is far easier to realize that Genesis 11 is incomplete. It is also held that some of these names are actually family or clan names.

Furthermore, any view that holds the Flood to have destroyed all men all over the earth, must place the Flood earlier than 292 years before Abraham who lived about 2000 b.c. There is a record, practically continuous, of Egyp. dynasties going back to almost 3000 b.c.—1000 years before Abraham. The city of Jericho in the Jordan valley shows many layers of mud brick going back long before 3000 b.c., which any destructive flood would surely have washed away. The genealogy of Genesis 11 is clearly incomplete. The one found in Genesis 5 is likely incomplete also. The date of 4004 b.c. assigned to Creation by Ussher in the 17th cent. is wrong. He assumed these genealogies were complete.

Actually the genealogies in Genesis 5 and 11 may be considered as links in the ancient tradition of mankind. Some consider a generation about thirty years long. From another viewpoint a generation is the period from birth to death—nearer seventy years or longer (see Generation). From the latter viewpoint the time from Abraham back to the Flood would be at least the sum of the lives of these patriarchs, about 2,263 years. Probably the Flood was still earlier. There seems to have been an abrupt change of climate about 9000 b.c. which would fit the genealogies well enough if the Flood was connected with that event.

Other references.

A word may be said about NT usages of the word genealogy. The foolish questions and genealogies mentioned in Titus 3:9 prob. refer to matters such as Paul referred to tracing his own ancestry from the tribe of Benjamin (Phil 3:5). Such trust in pedigree for merit before God was vain and far removed from the practical uses of genealogies in the OT.


Commentaries in loc. (esp. ICC, Curtis and Madsen on Chronicles); W. H. Green, “Primeval Chronology,” BS (1890), 285-304 (quoted extensively in Buswell, see below); P. W. Crannel, ISBE II (1929), 1183-1196; J. G. Machen, The Virgin Birth of Christ (1930), 204-209; J. O. Buswell Jr., A Systematic Theology of the Christian Religion, I (1962), 325-343.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)

je-na-al’-o-ji, jen-a-al’-o-ji:

1. Definition

2. Biblical References

3. Importance of Genealogies

4. Their Historical Value

5. Principles of Interpretation

6. Principles of Compilation

7. Sources

8. Principal Genealogies and Lists


1. Definition:

2. Biblical References:

3. Importance of Genealogies:

Genealogical accuracy, always of interest both to primitive and more highly civilized peoples, was made especially important by the facts that the land was promised to the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, that the priesthood was exclusively hereditary, that the royal succession of Judah lay in the Davidic house, that the division and occupation of the land was according to tribes, families and fathers’ houses; and for the Davididae, at least, that the Messiah was to be of the house of David. The exile and return, which fixed indelibly in the Jewish mind the ideas of monotheism, and of the selection and sacred mission of Israel, also fixed and deepened the genealogical idea, prominently so in the various assignments by families, and in the rejection in various ways of those who could not prove their genealogies. But it seems extreme to date, as with many modern critics, its real cultivation from this time. In the importance attached to genealogies the Hebrew resembles many other ancient literatures, notably the Egyptian Greek, and Arabic, but also including Romans, Kelts, Saxons, the earliest history naturally being drawn upon genealogical as well as on annalie lines. A modern tendency to overestimate the likeness and underestimate the unlikeness of the Scripture to its undoubtedly cognate literatures finds in the voluminous artificial genealogical material, which grew up in Arabia after the time of the caliph Omar, an almost exact analogue to the genealogical interest at the time of the return. This, however, is on the assumption of the late date of most of the genealogical material in the older New Testament books, and rests in turn on the assumption that the progress of religious thought and life in Israel was essentially the same as in all other countries; an evolutionary development, practically, if not theoretically, purely naturalistic in its genesis and progress.

4. Their Historical Value:

The direct historical value of the Scripture genealogies is variously estimated. The critically reconstructive school finds them chiefly in the late (priestly) strata of the early books, and dates Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah (our fullest sources) about 300 BC, holding it to be a priestly reconstruction of the national history wrought with great freedom by the "Chronicler." Upon this hypothesis the chief value of the genealogies is as a mirror of the mind and ideas of their authors or recorders, a treasury of reflections on the geographical, ethnological and genealogical status as believed in at their time, and a study of the effect of naive and exaggerated patriotism dealing with the supposed facts of national life, or else, in the extreme instance, a highly interesting example of bold and inventive juggling with facts by men with a theory, in this particular case a priestly one, as with the "Chronicler." To more conservative scholars who accept the Old Testament at its face value, the genealogies are a rich mine of historical, personal and ethnographic, as well as religious, information, whose working, however, is much hindered by the inevitable corruption of the text, and by our lack of correlative explanatory information. Much interesting illustrative matter may be looked for from such archaeological explorations as those at Gezer and elsewhere under the Palestine Exploration Society, the names on the pottery throwing light on the name- lists in Chronicles, and the similar discoveries on the supposed site of Ahab’s palace in Samaria, which also illustrate the conflict between Baal and Yahweh worship by the proportion of the proper names compounded by "Baal" or "Jah" (see Macalister, Bible Sidelights from Gezer, 150 ff; PEF, 1905, 243, 328; Harvard Theological Review, 1911). In spite of all such illustrative data, however, the genealogies must necessarily continue to present many insoluble problems. A great desideratum is a careful and systematic study of the whole question by some modern conservative scholar endowed with the patience and insight of the late Lord A.C. Hervey, and equipped with the fruits of the latest discoveries. While much curious and suggestive information may be derived from an intensive study of the names and relationships in the genealogies (although here the student needs to watch his theories), their greatest present value lies in the picture they present of the large-hearted cosmopolitanism, or international brotherliness, in the older ones, notably Ge 10, recognizing so clearly that God hath made of one all nations to dwell on the earth; and, as they progress, in the successive selection and narrowing as their lines converge upon the Messiah.

5. Principles of Interpretation:

In the evaluation and interpretation of the genealogies, certain facts and principles must be held in mind.

(1) Lists of names necessarily suffer more in transmission than other literature, since there is almost no connectional suggestion as to their real form. Divergences in different versions, or in different stages, of the same genealogy are therefore to be looked for, with many tangles hard to unravel, and it is precisely at this point that analytic and constructive criticism needs to proceed most modestly and restrain any possible tendency unduly to theorize.

(2) Frequently in the Scriptural lists names of nations, countries, cities, districts or clans are found mingled with the names of individuals. This is natural, either as the personification of the clan or nation under the name of its chief, or chief progenitor, or as the designation of the individual clan, family or nation, from its location, so common among many nations. Many of the cases where this occurs are so obvious that the rule may not be unsafe to consider all names as probably standing for individuals where the larger geographical or other reference is not unmistakably clear. This is undoubtedly the intent and understanding of those who transmitted and received them.

(3) It is not necessary to assume that the ancestors of various tribes or families are eponymous, even though otherwise unknown. The Scriptural explanation of the formation of tribes by the expansion and division of families is not improbable, and is entitled to a certain presumption of correctness. Furthermore, it is extremely difficult to establish a stopping-point for the application of the eponymous theory; under its spell the sons of Jacob disappear, and Jacob, Isaac and even Abraham become questionable.

(4) The present quite popular similar assumption that personal details in the genealogy stand for details of tribal history, as, for instance, the taking of a concubine means rather an alliance with, or absorption of, an inferior tribe or clan, is a fascinating and far-reaching generalization, but it lacks confirmation, and would make of the Scripture an allegorical enigma in which historical personages and events, personified peoples or countries, and imaginary ancestors are mingled in inextricable confusion.

(5) Scriptural genealogies are often given a regular number of generations by omitting various intermediate steps. The genealogies of Jesus, for instance, cover 42 generations, in 3 subdivisions of 14 each. Other instances are found in the Old Testament, where the regularity or symmetry is clearly intentional. Instance Jacob’s 70 descendants, and the 70 nations of Ge 10. This has in modern eyes an artificial look, but by no means necessarily involves violence done to the facts under the genealogist’s purview, and is readily and creditably accounted for by his conceptions and purposes. The theory that in some cases the requisite number has been built up by the insertion of imaginary names(see Curtis, ICC, "Chronicles," 135) has another aspect, and does not seem necessary to account for the facts, or to have sufficient facts to sustain it. See 21:5, (6) below. It involves a view of the mental and moral equipment and point of view of the Chronicler in particular, which would not seem to leave him many shreds of either historical, or "religious" value, and which a sounder criticism will surely very materially modify.

(6) Much perplexity and confusion is avoided by remembering that other modes of entrance into the family, clan, tribe or nation obtained than that by birth: capture, adoption, the substitution of one clan for another just become extinct, marriage. Hence, "son of," "father of," "begat," have broader technical meanings, indicating adoptive or official connection or "descent," as well as actual consanguinity, nearer or remote, "son" also meaning "grandson," "great-grandson," etc. Instance Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, of the tribe of Judah, styled (1Ch 2:18) a descendant of Hezron and son of Hur, but also, in token of his original descent, called the Kenizzite or "son of Kenaz" (Jos 15:17), etc. Similarly, where in an earlier genealogy a clan or individual is assigned to a certain tribe, and in a later to another, it has been "grafted in." But while these methods of accretion clearly obtained, the nations freely absorbing neighboring or surrounding peoples, families, or persons, families likewise absorbing individuals, as in American Indian, and many other tribes; yet, as in them, the descent and connection by birth constituted the main line, and in any given case has the presumption unless clear facts to the contrary exist.

(7) The repetition of the same name in the same genealogy, as in that of the high priests (1Ch 6:1-15), rouses "suspicion" in some minds, but unnecessarily. It is very natural, and not uncommon, to find grandfathers and grandsons, especially among the Hebrews, receiving the same name (Lu 1:59). This would be especially to be expected in a hereditary caste or office like the priesthood.

(8) The existence of the same name in different genealogies is not uncommon, and neither implies nor should cause confusion.

(9) The omission of one or many links in the succession, often clearly caused by the desire for symmetry, is frequent where the cause is unknown, the writers being careful only to indicate the connection more or less generally, without feeling bound to follow every step. Tribes were divided into families, and families into fathers’ houses; tribe, family and fathers’ house regularly constituting links in a formal genealogy, while between them and the person to be identified any or all links may be omitted. In similar fashion, there is an absence of any care to keep the successive generations absolutely distinct in a formal fashion, son and grandson being designated as alike "son" of the same ancestor. Ge 46:21, for instance, contains grandsons as well as sons of Benjamin, Bela, Becher, Ashbel, Gera, Nanman, Ehi, etc. This would be especially true where the son as well as the father became founder of a house. Some confusion is occasionally caused by the lack of rigid attention to precise terminology, a characteristic of the Hebrew mind. Strictly the tribe, shebheT (in the Priestly Code (P), maTTeh), is the larger subdivision, then the clan, mishpachah, "family," and then the "house" or "fathers’ house," bayith, or beth ’abh, beth ’abhoth; but sometimes a "fathers’ house" is a tribe (Nu 17:6), or a clan (1Ch 24:6). In this connection it is to be remembered again that sequence of generations often has to do with families rather than with individuals, and represents the succession to the inheritance or headship, rather than the actual relationship of father and son.

(10) Genealogies are of two forms, the descending, as Ge 10: "The sons of Japheth: Gomer," etc.; "The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz," etc.; and the ascending, Ezr 7:1 ff: "Ezra, the son of Seraiah, the son of Azariah, the son of Hilkiah," etc. The descending are the usual.

(11) Feminine names are occasionally found, where there is anything remarkable about them, as Sarai and Milcah (Ge 11:29), Rebekah (Ge 22:23), etc.; or where any right or property is transmitted through them, as the daughters of Zelophehad, who claimed and were accorded "a possession among the brethren of (their) father" (Nu 26:33; 27:1-11 ), etc. In such cases as Azubah and Ephrath, successive wives of Caleb (1Ch 2:18-20), many modern critics find tribal history enshrined in this case, "Caleb" or "dog" tribe having removed from Azubah, "deserted" to Ephrathah, Bethlehem, in Northern Judah. But the principle is not, and cannot be, carried Out consistently.

(12) The state of the text is such, especially in Chronicles, that it is not easy, or rather not possible, to construct a complete genealogical table after the modern form. Names and words have dropped out, and other names have been changed, so that the connection is often difficult and sometimes impossible to trace. The different genealogies also represent different stages in the history and, at many places, cannot with any knowledge now at our command be completely adjusted to each other, just as geographical notices at different periods must necessarily be inconsistent.

(13) In the present state of our knowledge, and of the text, and also considering the large and vague chronological methods of the Hebrews, the genealogies can give us comparatively little chronological assistance. The uncertainty as to the actual length of a generation, and the custom of frequently omitting links in the descent, increases the difficulty; so that unless they possess special marks of completeness, or have outstanding historical relationships which determine or corroborate them, or several parallel genealogies confirm each other, they must be used with great caution. Their interest is historical, biographical, successional or hereditary, rather than chronological.

6. Principles of Compilation:

The principal genealogical material of the Old Testament is found in Ge 5; 10; 11; 22; 25; 29; 30; 35; 36; 46; Ex 6; Nu 1; 2; 7; 10; 13; 26; 34; scattered notices in Josh, Ruth, 1 Sam; 2Sa 3; 5; 23; 1Ki 4; 1Ch 1-9; 11; 12; 15; 23-27; 2Ch 23; 29; Ezr 2; 7; 10; Ne 3; 7; 10; 11; 12. The genealogies of our Lord (Mt 1:1-17; Lu 3:23-38) are the only New Testament material. The Old Testament and New Testament genealogies bring the record down from the creation to the birth of Christ. After tracing the descent from Adam to Jacob, incidentally (Ge 10) giving the pedigree of the various nations within their purview, the Hebrew genealogists give the pedigree of the twelve tribes. As was to be expected, those tribes, which in the developing history assumed greater prominence, received the chief attention. Da is carried down but 1 generation, and credited with but 1 descendant; Zebulun 1 generation, 3 sons; Naphtali 1 generation, 4 sons; Issachar 4 generations, 15 descendants; Manasseh 4 generations, 39 descendants; Asher 7 generations, 40 descendants; Reuben 8 (?) generations, 22 descendants; Gad 10 generations, 28 descendants; Ephraim 14 (?) generations, 25 descendants. Levi, perhaps first as the priestly tribe, Judah next as the royal, Benjamin as most closely associated with the others, and all three as the survivors of the exile (although representatives of other tribes shared in the return) are treated with the greatest fullness.

7. Sources:

Chronicles furnishes us the largest amount of genealogical information, where coincident with the older genealogies, clearly deriving its data from them. Its extra-canonical sources are a matter of considerable difference among critics, many holding that the books cited by the Chronicler as his sources ("The Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah," "The Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel," "The History of Samuel the Seer," "The History of Nathan the Prophet," etc., to the number of perhaps 16) are our canonical books, with the addition of a "Midrashic History of Israel," from which he quotes the most freely. But the citations are made with such fullness, vividness, and particularity of reference, that it is hard to believe that he did not have before him extensive extra-canonical documents. This is the impression he clearly seeks to convey. Torrey (AJSL, XXV, 195) considers that he cit, es this array of authority purely "out of his head," for impressiveness’ sake, a theory which leaves the Chronicler no historical value whatever. It is extremely likely that he had before him also oral and written sources that he has not cited, records, private or public lists, pedigrees, etc., freely using them for his later lists and descents. For the post-exilic names and lists, Ezra-Nehemiah also furnish us much material. In this article no attempt is made at an exhaustive treatment, the aim being rather by a number of characteristic examples to give an idea of the quality, methods and problems of the Bible genealogies.

8. Principal Genealogies and Lists:

In the early genealogies the particular strata to which each has been assigned by reconstructive critics is here indicated by J, the Priestly Code (P), etc. The signs "=" or ":" following individual names indicate sonship.

(1) Genesis 4:16-24.--The Cainites (Assigned to P).

Seven generations to Jabal, Jubal and Tubal-cain, explaining the hereditary origin of certain occupations (supposed by many to be a shorter version of chapter 5).

(2) Genesis 4:25,26.--The Sethites (Assigned to J).

(3) Genesis 5:1-32.--The Book of the Generations of Adam (Assigned to the Priestly Code (P), Except 5:29 J).

Brings the genealogy down to Noah, and gives the chronology to the Flood. The numbers in the Hebrew Massoretic Text, the Samaritan Hebrew, and the Septuagint differ, Massoretic Text aggregating 1,656 years, Samaritan 1,307 years, and Septuagint 2,242 years. Some scholars hold this list to be framed upon that of the ten Babylonian kings given in Berosus, ending with Xisuthrus, the Babylonian Noah. An original primitive tradition, from which both lists are derived, the Hebrew being the nearer, is not impossible. Both the "Cainite" list in Ge 4 and this "Sethite" list end with three brothers.

(4) Genesis 10:1-32.--The Generations of the Sons of Noah.

"The Table of Nations" (assigned to the Priestly Code (P), 10:1-7; J, 10:8-19; the Priestly Code (P), 10:20; J, 10:21; the Priestly Code (P), 10:22; J, 10:24-30; the Priestly Code (P), 10:31,32). Found in abridged form in 1Ch 1:5-24.

I. Japheth = Gomer, Magog, Badai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, Tiras.

1. Gomer = Ashkenaz, Riphath (1Ch 1:6, Diphath), Togarmah.

2. Javan = Elisha, Tarshish, Kittim, Dodanim (Rodanim, 1Ch 17, is probably correct, a "d", having been substituted by a copyist for "r").

II. Ham = Cush, Mizraim, Put, Canaan.

1. Cush = Seba, Havilah, Sibtah, Raamah, Sabteca (Nimrod).

2. Mizraim = Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim (whence the Philis), Caphtorim.

3. Canaan = Zidon (Chronicles, Sidon), Heth; the Jebusite, Amorite, Girgashite, Hivite, Arkite, Sinite, Arvadite, Zemarite, Hittite.

4. Raamah (son of Cush ) = Sheba, Dedan.

III. Elam = Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, Aramaic

1. Aram = Uz, Hul, Gether, Mash (Chronicles, Meshech).

2. Arpachshad = Shelah = Eber = Peleg, Joktan.

3. Joktan (son of Eber) = Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, Obal, Abimael, Sheba, Ophir, Havilah, Jobab.

4. Peleg (son of Eber) = Reu = Serug = Nahor = Terah = Abraham.

Nearly all these names are of peoples, cities or districts. That Noah, Shem, Ham, Japheth, Nahor, Terah, Abraham, Nimrod, and probably Peleg, Reu, Serug, represent actual persons the general tenor of the narrative and the general teaching of Scripture clearly indicate, although many critics consider these also as purely eponymous. The others can mostly be more or less clearly identified ethnographically or geographically. This table represents the nations known to the writer, and in general, although not in all particulars, expresses the ethnographical relationships as far as they are now known to modern research. It follows a partly ethnological, partly geographical scheme, the descendants of Japheth in general representing the Aryan stock settled in Asia Minor, Media, Armenia, Greece, and the islands of the Mediterranean; those of Ham representing the Hamitic races in Ethiopia, Egypt, in Southwest Arabia, and Southern Babylonia. Many modern writers hold that in making "Nimrod" the son of "Cush," the Scripture writer has confused "Cush," the son of Ham, with another "Gush," the Cassei, living near Elam, since the later Babylonians and Assyrians were clearly Semitic in language and racial characteristics. Nevertheless the Scripture statement is accordant with early traditions of a Hamitic settlement of the country (Oannes the fish-god coming out of the Red Sea, etc.), and perhaps also with the fact that the earliest language of Babylonia was non-Sem. The sons of Canaan represent the nations and peoples found by the Hebrews in Palestine, the Phoenicians and the Canaanites. Heth is the great Hittite nation, by language and racial type strikingly non-Sem. Among the sons of Shem, Eber is by many considered eponymous or imaginary, but the hypothesis is not necessary. Most Assyriologists deny the connection of Elam with Shem, the later Elamites being non-Sem; the inscriptions, however, show that the earlier inhabitants up to 2300 BC were Semitic Lud must be the Lydians of Asia Minor, whose manners and older names resemble the Semitic Asia Minor presents a mixture of races as manifold as does Palestine. The sons of Joktan are tribes in Western and Southern Arabia. Havilah is given both as a son of Cush, Hamite, and of Joktan, Semite, perhaps because the district was occupied by a mixed race. It would seem, however, that "begat" or "son of" often represents geographical as well as ethnological relations. And where the classification of the Scripture writer does not accord with the present deliverances of archaeology, it must be remembered that at this distance conclusions drawn from ethnology, philology and archaeology, considering the present incomplete state of these sciences, the kaleidoscopic shifting of races, dynasties and tongues through long periods, and our scanty information, are liable to so many sources of error that dogmatism is precarious. The ancient world possessed a much larger amount of international knowledge than was, until recently, supposed. A writer of 300 BC had a closer range and could have had sources of information much more complete than we possess. On the assumption of the Mosaic authorship, that broad, statesmanlike mind, learned in all the knowledge of the Egyptians, and, clearly, profoundly influenced by Babylonian law and literature, may be credited with considerable breadth of vision and many sources of information. Aside from the question of inspiration, this Table of Nations; for breadth of scope, for inclusiveness (though not touching peoples outside of the life of its writer), for genial broadmindedness, is one of the most remarkable documents in any literature.

(5) Genesis 11:10-27.--The Generations of Shem (assigned to P).

From Shem to Abraham. The list is also chronological, but the versions differ, Massoretic Text making 290 years, from Shem to Abraham, Samaritan Hebrew, 940, and Septuagint 1,070. Septuagint inserts Cainan, 130 years, otherwise agreeing with the Samaritan to the birth of Abraham. Arpachshad may be rendered "the territory of Chesed," i.e. of the Chasdim, Chaldeans. Eber therefore is descended from Arpachshad, Abraham, his descendant, coming from Ur-Chasdim.

(6) Genesis 11:23-26; 22:20-24.--The Children of Nahor (11:23-26 P; 22:20-24 J).

Uz, Buz, Kemuel, etc. These descendants of Abraham’s brother probably represent Aramean tribes chiefly East or Northeast of Canaan. Aram may be the ancestor of the Syrians of Damascus. Uz and Buz probably belong to Arabia Petrea, mentioned in Jer 25:23 with the Arabian tribes Dedan and Thema. Chesed in this list probably stands, not for the Chaldeans of Babylonia, but for a related tribe of Northern Syria. In Ge 10:23 (assigned to P) Uz is the son of Aram, and in 10:22 Aram is a son of Shem. On the purely tribal hypothesis, this is either a contradiction, or the later statements represent other tribal relationships or subdivisions. Probably other individuals or tribes are indicated. Chronicles does not have this list, it being a side stream.

(7) Genesis 16:15; 21:1-3; 25 (also 1Ch 1:28-33).--The Sons of Abraham by Sarah, Hagar, Keturah (Ge 16:15 assigned to P; 21:1-3 to J, the Priestly Code (P), J, P; Ge 25:1-6 J; 25:7-11 P; 25:11b J; 25:12-17 P; 25:18 J; 25:19,20 P; 25:21-26a J; 25:26b P; 25:27-34 J).

The descendants of Abraham through Hagar and Ishmael represent the Ishmaelite tribes of Arabia living North and Northwest of the Joktanidae, who chiefly peopled Arabia. Twelve princes are named, possibly all sons of Ishmael, perhaps some of them grandsons. The number has seemed "suspicious" as balancing too exactly the twelve tribes of Israel. But twelve is an approved Semitic number, determining not necessarily the sons born, but the "sons" mentioned. The Arabians generally were frequently given the name Ishmaelites, perhaps because of the greater prominence and closer contact of these northern tribes with the Hebrews. The sons of Keturah seem to have been chiefly Arabian tribes, whose locations are unknown. Midian, of the sons of Keturah, is the well-known and powerful tribe in the Arabian desert near the Aelanitic Gulf, bordered by Edom on the Northwest Sheba and Dedan are also mentioned as Cushites (Ge 10:7). Very likely the tribes extensively intermarried, and could claim descent from both; or were adopted into one or the other family. Sheba was in Southwestern Arabia. Dedan lived near Edom, where the caravan routes to various parts of Arabia converged. Asshurim are of course not Assyrians, but an Arabian tribe, mentioned by the side of Egypt in Minaean inscriptions. While the two sons of Isaac are to be accepted as real persons, their typical character is also unmistakable, the history of the two nations, Israel and Edom, being prefigured in their relations.

(8) Genesis 29:31-30:24; 35:16-26. The Children of Jacob (29:31-35 Assigned to P; 30:1-3a JE; 30:4a P; 30:4b-24 JE; 35:16-22 JE; 35:23-26 P).

The account of the parentage, birth and naming of the founders of the twelve tribes; by Leah: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun (daughter Dinah); by Bilhah: Dan, Naphtali; by Zilpah: Gad, Asher; by Rachel: Joseph, Benjamin. Much modern criticism agrees that these names are purely those of tribes, some of them perhaps derived from persons or places impossible now to trace, but mostly eponymous. Accordingly, these chapters are to be translated as follows. An Arab tribe, Jacob, wanders in Canaan, quarrels with Edom, migrates to Haran, forms alliances with the Aramean clans Rachel, Bilhah, Leah, Zilpah. Rachel and Jacob constitute a new tribe, Joseph. The federation takes the name Jacob. The other allied clans divide into sub-clans, or new clans join them, until Leah has six "sons," Reuben, Simeon, etc.; Zilpah, two; Bilhah, two. Zilpah and Bilhah are "concubines" because inferior members of the federation, or else have a left-handed connection with it. The formation of the new tribe Benjamin broke up the old tribe Rachel, which (who) accordingly "died." Although such are the original facts imbedded in the documents, they are now set in a framework of personal narrative, and were understood as narrative by the first hearers and readers. The history thus constituted is necessarily "an enigma which it is very hard to solve" (Bennett, Genesis, 284), and with almost as many answers as students. For critical purposes it presents a rich field for exploration, analysis and conjecture, but its edificatory value is chiefly found in reading the narratives as personal: a serious and reverent religious romance rounded on facts or legends, whose real value lies in the sidelights it throws on national character and ethical principles, expressed in a naive, vivid, lifelike story, full of suggestion and teaching. This present article, however, proceeds on the Scripture representation of these details and incidents as personal.

The explanations of the names illustrate the Hebrew fondness for assonances, paronomasia, coming from a time when much importance was attached to words and sounds, but need not be considered mere popular etymologies, the Hebrew individual mother being fully capable of them. Neither do they necessarily represent the original etymology, or reason for the name, but may give the pregnant suggestion occurring to the maternal or other imagination.

Leah, "wild cow," is supposed by many to be so called from the "totem" of the "Leah" tribe. Reuben (re’ubhen), original meaning unknown, unless Leah’s emotional explanation explains the name, rather than is explained by it: ra’ah be`onyi, "hath looked upon my affliction." Superficially it might be re’u ben, "See, a son," as in the American Revised Version, margin. Others see in the second statement: "My husband will love me," still another etymology, ye’ehdbhani, "will love me." The lover of assonances can find more than one. The tribe is not prominent after Deborah’s time. Simeon, considered by some an animal (totem) name, the Arabic sim`u, cross between hyena and wolf, suggests to the mother (or is suggested by that) its likeness to shama`, "hear": "Yahweh hath heard." It is not much known after the Conquest. Levi, "adhesion, associate": thought by many a gentilic adjective from Leah, the Leah tribe paragraph excellence; the name is adjectival in form. Leah connects it with yillaweh, "He will join," `Now will my husband be joined unto me.’ A similar allusion is found in Nu 18:2,4, there applied to the "joining" of the tribe to Aaron. Judah is associated with the verb hadhah, "praise": "Now will I praise Yahweh." Jacob makes the same suggestion in Ge 49:8; no other plausible suggestion of the origin of the name can be made. The etymology and origin of Bilhah are unknown. Da is associated with danah, "judge": "God hath judged"; no other etymology can be found. Naphtali is derived from niphtal, "wrestle": "I have wrestled," the only discoverable etymology. Zilpah, zilpah, perhaps is "dropping," "drop." Gad, gadh, "fortunate," according to Leah. Gad was the well-known Syrian god of "fortune"; but there is no necessary connection here. Asher, from ’ashar, "happy," ’ashsher, "call happy"; so Leah; no connection with Asshur, Assyrian god. Issachar, from sakhar, "hire," "man of hire": "God hath given me mine hire," also because Leah had "hired" Jacob with her son’s mandrakes; a similar allusion in Ge 49, "a servant under taskwork." Wellhausen would read ’ish-sakhar, "man of (some deity, unknown)." Zebulun, from zebhul, "habitation, dwelling": Leah gives two explanations, the first assigned by critics to Elohist (E) (probably), connecting the name with a root found in Zebediah, Zabdi, etc., "endow": "God hath endowed me with a good dowry"; the second with zabhal, "dwell": "Now will my husband dwell with me." Dinah, like Dan, is from dan, "judge." Supposed by some to be an old tribe of Israel, in some way associated with Dan, possibly a twin division. Rachel is "ewe," hence identified with a "ewe" tribe. Joseph has a twofold suggestion: the first (assigned to E) from acaph, "take away": "God hath taken away my reproach"; the second (assigned to J) from yacaph, "add": "Yahweh will add to me another son." None of these three cases of double explanation would so far exhaust Hebrew maternal imagination as to require the hypothesis of two documents, even though in the last "God" is used in the first suggestion and "Yahweh" in the second. Benjamin is called by Rachel Benoni, "the son of my sorrow," which is supposed to be an old tribal name, perhaps related to Onan, a clan of Judah, or the Benjamite city, Ono, and possibly to the Egyptian On. Benjamin, Jacob’s name for him, "son of the right hand," i.e. of happiness, is understood as "son of the south," because originally the southern section of the Joseph tribe. The attempts to trace these names to tribal origins, local allusions, cognate languages, customs and religions have engaged much research and ingenuity, with results exceedingly diverse.

(9) Genesis 36. The Generations of Esau (P).

I. The Descent of the Edomite Chiefs and Clans from Esau through His Three Wives, the Hittite or Canaanite Adah, the Ishmaelite Basemath, and the Horite Oholibamah (Genesis 36:1-19).

The wives’ names here differ from the other statements: In Ge 26:34 and 28:9:

1. Judith, daughter of Beeri the Hittite.

2. Bashemath, daughter of Elan, the Hittite.

3. Mahalath, daughter of Ishmael, sister of Nebaioth.

In Ge 36:

1. Oholibamah, daughter of Anah, daughter of Zibeon, the Hivite.

2. Adah, daughter of Elon the Hittite.

3. Bashemath, daughter of Ishmael, sister of Nebaioth.

It is not necessary to resort to the hypothesis of different traditions. Bashemath and Adah are clearly identical, Esau perhaps having changed the name; as are Mahalath and the Ishmaelite Basemath, a transcriber’s error being probably responsible for the change. As to Judith and Oholibamah, Anah is probably a man, identical with Beeri (Ge 36:24), the son of Zibeon. Both "Hivite" and "Hittite" are apparently errors for "Horite," the difference being in only one consonant. Or "Hittite" may be used as the larger term embracing "Horite." "Edom" (Ge 36:1,8,19) is a personal name; in Ge 36:9,43 (Hebrew the American Revised Version, margin) it is national, indicating that to the writer Esau was a person, not an eponym. Nowhere are personal characteristics more vividly and unmistakably portrayed than in the accounts of Jacob and Esau. In these Esauite names are but two compounds of "El" (’el), none of "Jah" (yah).

II. The Aboriginal Leaders or Clans in Edom, Partly Subdued by, Partly Allied with, the Esauites (Genesis 36:20-30).

These are descendants of "Seir the Horite" in seven branches, and in sub-clans. "Seir" looks like an eponym or a personification of the country, as no personal details have been preserved. Among these names are no "El" (’el) or "Jah" (yah) compounds, although they are clearly cognate with the Hebrew. Several close similarities to names in Judah are found, especially the Hezronite. Many animal names, "Aiah," "bird of prey," "Aran," "wild goat," etc.

III. Eight Edomite "Kings" before the Hebrew Monarchy (Genesis 36:31-39).

One ’el compound, "Mehitabel," one ba’al compound. It is to be noted that the "crown" was not hereditary and that the "capital" shifted; the office was elective, or fell into the hands of the local chief who could win it.

IV. A List of Esauite Clan Chiefs; "Dukes" (English Revised), "Chiefs" (American Standard Revised Version); "Sheiks" (Genesis 36:40-43).

Apparently arranged territorially rather than tribally. The names seem used here as either clans or places and should perhaps be read: "the chief of Teman," etc. The original ancestor may have given his name to the clan or district, or obtained it from the district or town.

In general this genealogy of Esau shows the same symmetry and balance which rouses suspicion in some minds: excluding Amalek, the son of the concubine, the tribes number twelve. Amalek and his descendants clearly separated from the other Edomites early and are found historically about Kadesh-barnea, and later roaming from the border of Egypt to North Central Arabia.

(10) Genesis 46:8-27.

(In different form, Nu 26:1-51, and much expanded in parts of 1Ch 2-8; compare Ex 6:14-16). Jacob’s posterity at the descent into Egypt (considered a late addition to P).

A Characteristic Genealogy.

It includes the ideal number of 70 persons, obtained by adding to the 66 mentioned in Ge 46:26, Jacob, Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh, the two latter born in Egypt. Septuagint, followed by Stephen (Ac 7:14), reckons 75, adding to Ge 46:20 the names of three grandsons and two great-grandsons of Joseph, obtained from Nu 26:29,35 ff. Some may have been omitted to secure the ideal number so fascinating to the Hebrew mind. It is to be noted that Leah’s male descendants are double those of Zilpah, and Rachel’s double those of Bilhah, showing the ideal (but not the fictitious) character of the list. The design, also, seems to be to include those descendants of Jacob from whom permanent divisions sprang, even though, like Manasseh and Ephraim and probably Hezron and Hamul, born after the migration, but before Jacob’s death. A comparison with the partial parallels also illustrates the corruption of the text, and the difficulty of uniformity in lists of names. The full list follows:

1. Jacob.

2. Leah’s descendants.

A. Reuben = Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, Carmi.

B. Simeon = Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, Shaul.

C. Leui = Gershon, Kohath, Merari.

D. Judah = Er, Onan, Shelah, Perez, Zerah; Perez, Hezron, Hamul.

E. Issachar = Tolah, Puvah, Iob, Shimron.

F. Zebulun = Sered, Elon, Jahleel.

G. Dinah, daughter.

3. Zilpah’s descendants, 16.

A. Gad = Ziphion, Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arodi, Areli.

B. Asher = Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, Beriah, Serah (daughter); Beriah = Heber, Malchiel.

4. Rachel’s descendants, 14.

A. Joseph = Manasseh, Ephraim.

B. Benjamin = Bela, Becher, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, Ehi, Rash, Muppim, Huppin, Ard.

5. Bilhah’ s descendants, 7.

A. Da = Hushim.

B. Naphtali = Jahzeel, Guni, Jezer, Shillem.

The list differs in many respects from those in Numbers and Chronicles, and presents some chronological and other problems. Without entering upon an exhaustive study, a number of names may be touched on.

Carmi, (2A), like the other names in i, might be a gentilic, "the Carmite," like "the Amorite," etc., especially if these names are those of clans, as they are in Numbers, instead of persons, as the Genesis narrative states. A town, "Bethhaccherem," is mentioned in Jer 6:1. But "the vine-dresser" is also a good rendering.

Hezron (2A). Another Hezron is given as a descendant of Judah. This duplication of names is possible in clans; see instances below, but more likely in persons.

Jemuel (2B). Nemuel in Nu 26:12; 1Ch 4:24, an easy error in transcription, yodh, and nun, being easily confused. In Numbers, Nemuel is also a Reubenite name.

Jamin (or Jachin) (2B) is Jarib in Chronicles.

Ohad (2B). Not in Numbers or Chronicles.

Zohar (2B) is Zerah in Numbers and Chronicles.

Gershon (2C). In 1Ch 6:16 Gershom; identified by some with Gershom, son of Moses, on theory that the priestly family of Gershom originally traced its descent to Moses, but its later members were reckoned, not as priests, but as Levites, thus becoming identified with Levi; precarious; its principal foundation being similarity of name and tribe.

Hezron and Hamul (2D) rouse chronological or exegetical difficulties. Pharez (Ge 33) could not have been old enough at the migration to have two sons; but very possibly Ge 38 is introduced episodically, not chronologically, and therefore its events may have occurred before those of Ge 37. Jacob was 130 years old at the descent, making Judah not 42 but 62, and Pharez old enough for sons. And, as suggested above, the writer may have done with Hezron and Hamul as with Ephraim and Manasseh--included them constructively, they having been born in Egypt, but before Jacob’s death, belonging therefore to the generation of the migration and so reckoned, especially as they rounded permanent tribal divisions.

Puvah (2E). Puah in 1Ch 7:1. In Jud 10:1, centuries later, Puah is father of Tola, an illustration of the descent of fathers’ names.

Iob (2E) is Jashub (Numbers, Chronicles), the latter probably correct. Septuagint has it here. A copyist, no doubt, omitted the "shin," "sh."

Dinah (2G) is thought by some to be a later insertion, on account of the "awkward Hebrew," "with Dinah." Dinah and Serah as unmarried, and no doubt because of other distinguishing facts, now unknown, are the only women descendants mentioned; married women would not be. On the clan theory of the names, the "Dinah" clan must have disappeared in Egypt, not being found in Number.

Ziphion (3A). Zephon in Numbers, perhaps giving its name to the Gadite city of Zaphon (Jos 13:27).

Ezbon (3A). Ozni (Nu 26:16). Possibly Ozni, on Ezbon’s death, took his place, rounding a tribal family, like Hezron and Hamul in Judah. Copyist’s error unlikely.

Arodi (3A). In Nu 26:17 Arod.

Ishvah (3B). Omitted in Numbers; perhaps died childless, or his descendants did not constitute a tribal family.

Beriah (3B). Also an Ephraimite (1Ch 7:23); a Benjaminite (8:13,16); a Levite (23:10,11). The repetition of the name indicates individuals rather than clans; but both the Asherite and Benjamite were heads of families.

Serah (3B), serach, "abundance," not the same name as that of Abraham’s wife, sarah, "princess."

Heber (3B), chebher; in 1Ch 4:18, a clan of Judah; 8:17, of Benjamin. Not the same name as Eber, `ebher (5:13; 8:22; and Ge 10:21).

The Sons of Benjamin.

The three lists, Genesis, Numbers, Chronicles, represent marked divergences, illustrating the corruption of perhaps all three texts. This list illustrates the genealogical method of counting all descendants as sons, though of different generations. It gives Benjamin ten "sons." Nu 26:38-40 gives five sons, Naaman and Ard being sons of Bela. The Septuagint of our passage gives only three sons, Bela, Becher, Ashbel. 1Ch 7:6 gives three sons, Bela, Becher, Jediael (Ashbel), and Shuppim and Huppim are Bela’s grandsons. Becher is omitted in 8:1, probably through a copyist’s error, who took bekher we-’ashbel, for "Becher and Ashbel," bekhoro ’ashbel, "his first-born, Ashbel." Jediael, both by older and newer scholars, is usually, but not with absolute certainty, identified with Ashbel. He may be a later chief. Another explanation is that 7:6 is part of a Zebulunite genealogy which has been transformed into a Benjamite list, Jediael being a remaining Zebulunite "pebble."

Naaman (4B) perhaps appears, by a transcriber’s error in 1Ch 8:2, as Nochach, Nochach for Na`aman. If Nohah is not Naaman, and not (Keil) Shephupham, or a chief who succeeded him, he may have been one who was born after the migration and not needed to make up the seventy.

Gera (4B) in similar fashion may appear in 1Ch 8:2 as Rapha. If not, Rapha also may be one born after the migration, and did not found a family.

Ehi (4B) is Ahiram (Nu 26:38); Aharah (1Ch 8:1). Ehi probably arises from some copyist omitting the "ram."

Rosh (4B) is not in Numbers or Chronicles. He rounded no family.

Muppim (4B) troubled the scribes greatly. In Nu 26:39 he is Shephupham, though as compounded in his family name it is Shupham. In 1Ch 7:12 he is Shuppim, and it is not made clear whether he is a son, or other descendant, of Benjamin. He is apparently called, with Huppim, a son of Ir (Iri), son of Bela. In 8:8 he is catalogued as a son of Bela, as Shephuphan. In old Hebrew mem ("m") and shin ("sh") closely resemble each other. As the "sh" also appears in the gentilic names, it is probably the correct form. The corrupt state of the Chronicler’s text especially is apparent, and also the fact that "son" may refer to any male descendant.

Huppim (4B) in Nu 26:39 is Hupham; in 1Ch 8:5 is Huram.

Ard (4B) in 1Ch 8:3 is a son of Bela, Addar, the copyist having transposed "d", and "r", or mistaken one for the other. In Septuagint at Ge 46:21 Ard is son of Gera, son of Bela.

Hushim (5A), the same in 1Ch 7:12, is Shuham (Nu 26:42), by transposition of consonants. Another Hushim is a Benjaminite, son of Aher, but Aher may possibly be a corruption of the numeral "one," it being the Chronicler’s frequent habit to add numerals. But see under Da 21:6, (3), p. 1194.

Jahzeel (5B) is Jahziel in 1Ch 7:13.

Guni (5B) in 1Ch 5:15 is also a Gadite name.

Shillem (5B), in 1Ch 7:13, Shallum, the commoner form.

(11) Exodus 6:14-25 (Assigned to P).--Partial List of Heads of Fathers’ Houses of Reuben, Simeon and Levi.

Reuben and Simeon are as in Genesis. Levi follows:

1. Gershon = Libni, Shimei.

2. Kohath.

A. Amram married Jochebed = Aaron, Moses; Aaron married Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab, sister of Nahshon = Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, Ithamar; Eleazar married daughter of Putiel = Phinehas.

B. Izhar = Korah, Nepheg, Zichri; Korah, Assir, Elkanah, Abiasaph.

C. Hebron.

D. Uzziel = Mishael, Elzaphan, Sithri.

3. Merari = Mahli, Mushi.

The interest of the list is partly chronological, but chiefly to illustrate the genealogical place of Aaron and Moses. It probably exhibits the genealogical practice of omitting links, Amaram the father of Moses apparently being several links from Amram the son of Kohath. By Moses’ time the Amramites numbered some 2,000 males (Nu 3:27, etc.). Jochebed (2A) is an instance of Yah in compounds before the Exodus. Putiel (2A) has been considered a partly Egyptian name, Puti or Poti, "devoted to" -El (’el); but probably Hebrew, "afflicted by God." Hebron is often identified with the city. It is also found in 1Ch 2:42,43, as Judahite.

(12) Numbers 1:5-54; 2:3-29; 7:12 ff; 10:4 ff.--The Heads of Houses Representing and Leading the Tribes (Assigned to P).

I. Reuben: Elizur, Son of Shedeur.

II. Simeon: Shelumiel, Son of Zurishaddai.

Shelumiel found in Judith.

III. Judah: Nahshon, Son of Amminadab.

Both found also in Ex 6:23; Ru 4:9-22; 1Ch 2:10-12: Mt 1:4; Lu 3:32 (genealogies of Christ).

IV. Issachar: Nethanel, Son of Zuar.

Nethanel, name of nine persons in Chronicles, Nehemiah, Ezra, same as Nathaniel.

V. Zebulun: Eliab, Son of Helon.

Other Eliabs, Nu 16:1 (Reubenite); 1Sa 16:6 (Jesse’s son, Judah).

VI. Joseph: Ephraim: Elishama, Son of Ammihud.

Other Elishamas: 2Sa 5:16 (son of David); Jer 36:12; 2Ch 17:8. Ammihuds: 2Sa 13:37 m; Nu 34:20,28; 1Ch 9:4 (Judahite).

VII. Joseph: Manasseh: Gamaliel, Son of Pedahzur. New Testament Gamaliel.

VIII. Benjamin: Abidan, Son of Gideoni.

IX. Dan: Ahiezer, Son of Ammishaddai.

Another, 1Ch 12:3 (Benjamite).

X. Asher: Pagiel, Son of Ochran.

XI. Gad: Eliasaph, Son of Deuel.

Another, Nu 3:24 (Levite).

XII. Naphtali: Ahira, Son of Enan.

Seven of these names, Amminadab, Ammihud, Abidan, Ahirah, Ahiezer, Eliab, Elishama, are concededly early. The 5 compounded in Shaddai or Zur are said to be of a type found only in P; 9 of the 24 are compounded in ’el, said to be a characteristic of late names. The ’El is postfixed more times, 5, than it is prefixed, 4; also a characteristic of late names. The proportion of compound names is also greater than in the older names; for these and similar reasons (Gray, ICC, "Nu," 6; HPN, 191-211; The Expositor T, September, 1897, 173-90) it is concluded that though several of the names are, and more may be, early, the list is late. But see Ancient Hebrew Tradition, 74, 83 ff, 85 ff, 320. The contention rests largely on the late date of the Priestly Code (P) and of Chronicles. But while fashions in names changed in Hebrew life as elsewhere, in view of the persistence of things oriental, the dating of any particular names is somewhat precarious. They may be anticipations or late survivals of classes of names principally prevalent at the later or earlier date. Two of the names, otherwise unknown, have come to us through Ruth, and indicate a source now unknown to us, from which all the names could have been drawn. The fondness for names in ’el very likely indicates not a late date but an early one. ’El is the Divine name appearing in personal names previous to Moses, succeeded by Jab from Moses and Joshua on. The recurrence of ’el in the time of Ezra and later probably indicates the renewed interest in antiquity as well as the at once wider and narrower outlook brought about by the exile and return. Numerous South Arabian compounds both with the "ilu," "ili" (’el), affixed and prefixed, occur in monuments about 1000 BC (AHT, 81 ff).

(13) Numbers 3:1-37.--The Family of Aaron, with the "Princes" of Levi.

Adds nothing to list in Ex 16:16-25 except the Levite "princes."

I. Gershonites: Eliasaph, Son of Lael.

Also a Benjaminite Eliasaph (Nu 1:14).

II. Kohathites: Elizaphan, Son of Uzziel.

A Zebulunite Elizaphan (Nu 34:25). Five other Uzziels, Benjamite, Levite, Simeonite.

III. Merarites: Zuriel, Son of Abihail.

A Gadire Abihail (1Ch 5:14); also father of Queen Esther; also two women: wife of Abishur (1Ch 2:29); wife of Rehoboam (2Ch 11:18). Four ’el suffixes, two prefixes.

(14) Numbers 13:4-16.--The Twelve Spies (P).

I. Reuben: Shammua, Son of Jaccur.

Other Shammuas (2Sa 5:14; 1Ch 14:4 (David’s son); Ne 11:17, Levite 12:18, priest). Seven other Zaccurs, Simeonites and Levites.

II. Simeon: Shaphat, Son of Hori.

Four other Shaphats, one Gadite, one Judahite; Elisha’s father. Hori looks like the national name of the Horites; perhaps Hori or an ancestor had been adopted, through marriage or otherwise.

III. Judah: Caleb, Son of Jephunneh, the Kenizzite (Numbers 32:12; Joshua 14:6,14).

Another Caleb, Chelubai, son of Hezron, brother of Jerahmeel (1Ch 2:9). Either as an individual, or as a clan, Caleb seems to be originally of the pre-Israelitish stock in Canaan, absorbed into the tribe of Judah. Perhaps Jephunneh the Kenizzite married a woman of Caleb’s (brother of Jerahmeel) household, and to their firstborn was given the name of Caleb, he becoming head of the house and prince of Judah. Another Jephunneh, an Asherite (1Ch 7:38).

IV. Issachar: Igal, Son of Joseph.

Other Igals: 2Sa 23:36 (one of David’s heroes); 1Ch 3:22. Note the name of another tribe given to a man of Issachar--Joseph (Nu 13:7).

V. Ephraim: Hoshea, Son of Nun;

Hoshea, Joshua’s early name. Others: 1Ch 27:20; King Hoshea, 2Ki 15:30; Ne 10:23; Hebrew name of prophet Hosea.

VI. Benjamin: Palti, Son of Raphu. See 16 IV.

VII. Zebulun: Gaddiel, Son of Sodi.

VIII. Joseph-Manasseh: Gaddi, Son of Susi.

A Gaddi is in 1 Macc 2:2.

IX. Dan: Ammiel, Son of Gemali.

Another Ammiel (2Sa 9:4).

X. Asher: Sethur, Son of Michael.

Nine other Michaels, Gadite, Levite, Issacharite, Benjamite, Manassite, Judahite.

XI. Naphtali: Nahbi, Son of Vophsi.

XII. Gad: Geuel, Son of Machi.

Four names in ’el. Nine ending with i; unusual number. The antiquity of the list cannot be readily questioned.

(15) Numbers 26:5-62 (P).--The Heads of Houses at the Second Census.

Related to Nu 1 and 2, and closely follows Ge 46. The divergences in individual names have been noted under (10). This list adds to

I. Reuben:

1. Eliab, son of Pallu (also Nu 16:1,12).

2. Dathan, Abiram, Nemuel, sons of Eliab.

II. Manasseh:

1. Machir; also Ge 50:23.

2. Gilead, son of Machir.

3. Iezer (abbreviation for Abiezer), Helek (not in Chronicles), Asriel, Shechem, Shemida, sons of Gilead.

4. Zelophehad, son of Hepher.

5. Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, Tirzah, daughters of Zelophehad.

III. Ephraim:

1. Shuthelah; also 1Ch 7:21.

2. Becher.

3. Tahan (Tahath, 1Ch 7:20).

4. Eran (Elead, 1Ch 7:21).

The names of Manasseh’s grandsons and great-grandsons are puzzling. Gilead is the district except in Jud 11:1,2, where it is the father of Jephthah. Shechem sounds like the Ephraimite town. Hepher reminds of Gath-Hepher. In Jos 17:1,2 the six sons of Gilead are described as sons of Manasseh; loosely, it is probable; they are to be understood as descendants. Perhaps the references may be summarized: The family of Machir, the son of Manasseh, conquered Gilead, and took its name therefrom, either as a family or in the person of a son, Gilead, whose six sons founded clans named from or giving names to certain towns or districts.

The daughters of Zelophehad are noted for the interesting case at law they presented, claiming and receiving the inheritance of their father, which by Gray, ICC, "Nu," is considered not historical but a fictitious instance, for the purpose of raising the question, these daughters being clans, and not persons.

Among the sons of Ephraim, Becher has perhaps been misplaced from verse 38, and possibly displaces Bered (1Ch 7:20) between Shuthelah and Tahath. It is not found here in the Septuagint. It is possible that an alliance between the Becherites and the Ephraimites caused one portion of the former to be counted with Ephraim and another with Benjamin; or that at different times the clan was allied with the two different tribes. An error in transcription is more probable. Another Shuthelah is found later in the line (1Ch 7:21).

(16) Numbers 34:16-28.--Tribal Representatives in the Allotment.

Reuben, Gad, half-Manasseh, omitted because their allotments had already been assigned East of Jordan; Levi, because receiving none. Changing to the order in (10):

I. Reuben: None.

II. Simeon: Shemuel, Son of Ammihud.

Shemuel is Hebrew of Samuel. Another Shemuel is of Issachar, 1Ch 7:2. Samuel the prophet, a Levite.

III. Judah: Caleb, Son of Jephunneh.

IV. Issachar: Paltiel, Son of Azzan.

Another Paltiel, otherwise Palti, David’s wife Michal’s temporary husband (2Sa 3:15). Another Benjamite spy (Nu 13:9).

V. Zebulun: Elizaphan, Son of Parnach.

Another Elizaphan, Kohathite Levite (Ex 6:18,22).

VI. Gad: None.

VII. Asher: Ahihud, Son of Shelomi.

Another Ahihud, Benjamite (1Ch 8:7).

VIII. Joseph-Ephraim: Kemuel, Son of Shiftan.

Another Kemuel, son of Nahor, an Aramean chief (Ge 22:21); also Levite of David’s time (1Ch 27:17).

IX. Joseph-Manasseh: Hanniel, Son of Ephod.

Hanniel, also an Asherite (1Ch 7:39).

X. Benjamin: Elidad, Son of Chislon.

XI. Dan: Bukki, Son of Jogli.

Bukki, abbreviation of Bukkiah; another, in high-priestly line of Phinehas (1Ch 6:5,51).

XII. Naphtali: Pedahel, Son of Ammihud.

A Simeonite Ammihud above.

Seven "El" names, only one "Jah."

(17) Ru 4:20.--The Ancestry of David (Perez: Hezron: Ram: Amminadab: Nahshon: Salmon (Salmah): Boaz: Obed: Jesse: David).

Contained unchanged in 1Ch 2:9-15; also Mt 1:1-6; also Lu 3:32. Some links have been omitted between Obed and Jesse. Salmon might be traced to the ancestor of the Bethlehemite (1Ch 2:51,54), who is, however, of Caleb’s line, not Ram’s; but the lines may mingle.

(18) 2Sa 3:2-5; 5:14,15. David’s children (also in 1Ch 3:1-9; 14:4-7).

I. Born in Hebron: Amnon, Chileab, Absalom, Adonijah, Shephatiah, Ithream.

II. Born in Jerusalem: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon, Ibhar, Elishua, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada, Eliphelet.

Four names in ’el, all prefixed. Two in "Jah." Chileab is Daniel in 1Ch 3:1; uncertain which is right, but probably Daniel is a corruption. Chronicles adds Nogah to the Jerusalem sons, probably developed in transcription. 1Ch 3:6-8 has two Eliphelets; 14:6 has Elpalet in place of the first; more probable. This gives David 6 sons in Hebron, and, if both Nogah and Elpalet be correct, 12 in Jerusalem. Eliada is Beeliada in 14:7, perhaps the original form, a relic of the time before the Hebrews turned against the use of Baal, "lord," as applied to Yahweh; in which case Baaliada, "Lord knows," was changed to Eliada, "God knows." 3:6 reads Elishama for Elishua. Japhia is also the name of a king of Lachish in Joshua’s time (Jos 10:3-7).

(19) 2 Samuel 23 (also 1 Chronicals 11:11-41).--David’s Knights.

1. Josheb-bashebeth, the Tahchemonite.

In Chronicles it is Jashobeam, and should read Ishbaal, the writer’s religious horror of Baal leading him to substitute the consonants of bosheth, "shame," as in Mephibosheth, Ishbosheth. Septuagint has Iesebada (Codex Vaticanus), Iessebadal, Isbaam (Codex Alexandrinus), in Chronicles, and Iebosthe (Codex Vaticanus), Iebosthai (Codex Alexandrinus) here. In Chronicles he is a Hachmonite, probably correct. "Adino the Heznite" is probably a corruption for "He wielded his spear" (Chronicles).

2. Eleazar, Son of Dodai, the Ahohite.

Dodo in Chronicles; 8 other Eleazars in the Old Testament. Another Dodo is father of Elhanan.

3. Shammah, Son of Agee, a Hararite.

Omitted by Chronicles. Three other Shammahs, one of them a knight of David. "Harari" may be "mountaineer," or "inhabitant of the village Harar."

4. Abishai, Son of Zeruiah, Brother of Joab.

Abshai (1Ch 18:12 margin). Zeruiah perhaps David’s half-sister (2Sa 17:25). Father never mentioned.

5. Benaiah, Son of Jehoaida of Kabzeel.

Eleven other Old Testament Benaiahs, one of them also a knight. This Benaiah succeeded Joab as commander-in-chief, 4 other Jehoiadas, one Benaiah’s grandson, high in David’s counsel, unless a scribe has inverted the order in 1Ch 27:34, which should then read Benaiah, son of Jehoiada.

6. Asahel, Brother of Joab.

Three other Asahels.

7. Elhanan, Son of Dodo of Bethlehem.

Another Elhanan, slayer of the brother of Goliath (2Sa 21:19; 1Ch 20:5). Perhaps the same.

8. Shammah the Harodite.

Chronicals, Shammoth. From Harod, near Gideon’s well (Jud 7:1).

9. Elika the Harodite.

10. Helez the Paltite.

Paltite perhaps local or family name from Pelet, or Palti.

11. Ira, Son of Ikkesh the Tekoite.

Two others, one a knight. Tekoah, Judaite town, home of Amos, etc.

12. Abiezer the Anathothite.

One other, a Manassite (Jos 17:2). Anathoth an hour Northeast of Jerusalem, Jeremiah’s town.

13. Mebunnai the Hushathite.

Should read, with Chronicles, Sibbecai.

14. Zalmon the Ahohite.

Zalmon, also name of mountain (Jud 9:48). Descendant of Ahoah, Benjamite of Bela’s line. See 1Ch 8:14.

15. Maharai the Netophathite.

From Netophah, town.

16. Heleb, Son of Baanah.

1Ch 11:30, Heled. Three other Bannabs.

17. Ittai, Son of Ribai of Gibeah of the Children of Benjamin.

1Ch 11:31, Ithai. An Ittai of Gath also followed David.

18. Benaiah a Pirathonite.

Pirathon, Amalekite town in Ephraimite territory.

19. Hiddai of the Brooks of Gnash.

Chronicles, Hurai ("d" for "r"). Ga’ash, a Wady in Ephraim.

20. Abi-albon the Arbathite.

Chronicles, Abiel, perhaps corrupted from Abi-Baal; from Beth-arabah, Judah or Benjamin.

21. Azmaveth the Barhumite.

Three others, and a Judaite town, of the same name. Baharumite; Chronicles, Barhumite, a Benjamite town.

22. Eliahba the Shaalbonite.

Shaalbon, a Danite town.

23. The Sons of Jashen (better, Hashem).

Chronicles, "the sons of Hashem the Gizonite." "Sons of" looks like a scribal error, or interpolation, perhaps a repetition of "bni" in "Shaalboni" above.

24. Jonathan, Son of Shammah the Hararite.

Chronicles adds, "the son of Shagee the Hararite." Shagee should perhaps be Agee (2Sa 23:11); but Septuagint indicates Shammah here; both Samuel and Chronicles should read "J., son of Shammah the Ararite."

25. Ahiam, Son of Sharar the Ararite.

Chronicles, Sacar the Hararite. Sacar is supported by Septuagint.

26. Eliphelet, Son of Ahasvai, the Son of the Maacathite.

Chronicles has "Eliphal, son of Ur," and adds "Hepher the Mecherathite." Both texts are corrupt. Chronicles should perhaps read, "Eliphelet the son of ...., the Maacathite, Eliam," etc.

27. Eliham, Son of Ahithophel the Gilonite.

Eliham, possibly father of Bathsheba. Ahithophel, David’s counselor. Gilonite, native of Giloh.

27a. Ahijah the Pelonite (in Chronicals but Not Samuel).

Seven other Ahijahs. Pelonite uncertain, probably a corruption; perhaps inserted by a scribe who could not decipher his "copy," and means "such and such a one," as in 1Sa 21:2.

28. Hezro (Hezrai) the Carmelite.

A scribe confused the Hebrew letters, waw ("w") and yod ("y"). Carmel, near Hebron.

29. Paarai the Arbite.

Chronicles, "Naarai, son of Esbai." Uncertain. Arb, a town of Judah.

30. Igal, Son of Nathan of Zobah.

Chronicles, Joel, brother of Nathan. Igal less common than Joel, hence, more likely to be corrupted; 2 other Igals; 12 other Joels; 5 other Nathans.

30a. Mibhar, Son of Hagri (Chronicles, not Samuel).

Text uncertain as between this and 31.

31. Bani the Gadite (Omitted in Chronicles).

Possibly the Gerarite.

32. Zelek the Ammonite.

Ammon East of Jordan and upper Jabbok.

33. Naharai the Beerothite, Armor-bearer to Joab, Son of Zeruiah.

Beeroth, Benjamite town.

34. Ira the Ithrite.

Ithrites, a family of Kiriath-jearim, Judah.

35. Gareb the Ithrite.

Gareb also a hill West of Jerusalem.

36. Uriah the Hittite.

Bathsheba’s husband; 3 others. From some Hittite town surrounded by Israel at the Conquest.

37. Zabad, Son of Ahlai (Perhaps Dropped out of Samuel), Chronicles.

Chronicles adds 13 others. The filling of vacancies makes the number 37 instead of 30. Two names, perhaps, in ba’al, 5 in yah, 7 in ’el. As far as guessable, 5 from Judah, 3 from Benjamin, 2 from Ephraim, 1 from Dan, 1 from Issachar, 1 Ammonite, 1 Hittite, 2 (or 4) Hararites, 2 Harodites, 2 Ithrites.

(20) 1 Kings 4:1-19.--Solomon’s "Princes" and Commissaries.

Eleven princes, 12 officers. No mention of their tribal connections; assigned only partly by tribal bounds. 7 yah names, 1 ’el; 5 of the officers are prefixed ben as if their own names had dropped out.

(21) 1 Chronicals 1-9.--Genealogies, with Geographical and Historical Notices.

By far the largest body of genealogical material, illustrating most fully the problems and difficulties. The estimate of its value depends on the estimate of the Chronicler’s date, purpose, equipment, ethical and mental qualities. He uses freely all previous Old Testament matter, and must have had in hand family or tribal songs, traditions; genealogical registers, as mentioned in Ezr 2:61-69; Ne 7:63-65; local traditions; official genealogies, such as "the genealogies reckoned in the days of Jotham king of Judah, and .... Jeroboam king of Israel" (1Ch 5:17); prophetic, historical and other matter now lost, "the words of Shemaiah .... after the manner of genealogies" (2Ch 12:15), and elsewhere. The results of David’s census seem to have been in his hands (1Ch 27:24). Curtis (ICC, "Chronicles," 528) suggests that his purpose was partly to provide genealogies for contemporary families, implying an accommodating insertion of names "after the manner of genealogies" today. Two main purposes, however, seem clear: the first historical, to give the historical and personal basis and setting to elucidate the Chronicler’s main thesis, that national prosperity depended upon, and national character was measured by, fidelity to the law of God, especially as it centered upon the worship and services of Yahweh’s house. To do this it was necessary to trace the descent of the prominent characters, families, tribes. Hence, the space given to Judah, Levi, Benjamin, the main line of fidelity, the survival of the fittest. The other purpose was to conserve purity of blood in the restored nation, to include all who were entitled and to exclude all who were not. We may also credit him with such regard for his material that he preserved it all (with certain comprehensible exceptions), even though extremely fragmentary here and there. His materials are of many degrees of age. It is thought by some that the antiquity is indicated by the last stage in the descent, the genealogy of Sheshun, e.g. ending with Hezekiah’s time; Heman’s and Asaph’s (1Ch 6,33) in David’s. Name-study and historico-literary criticism seeks still other marks of relative age. The text has suffered much, as lists of names will, from scribal errors. Details of his method will be pointed out in the following analysis. As in this whole article, space forbids exhaustive treatment of the endless textual, critical, historical questions arising. A few illustrative cases only are given.

I. Primeval Genealogies (1 Chronicals 1:1-54).

To show Israel’s place among the nations; follows Genesis closely, omitting only the Cainites; boldly, skillfully compressed, as if the omitted facts were well known.

(1) The ten antediluvian Patriarchs, and Noah’s three sons (1Ch 1:1-4).

Follows Ge 4:5, giving only the names.

(2) Japheth’s descendants (1Ch 1:5-7) (Ge 10:2-4 unchanged).

(3) The Hamites (1Ch 1:8-16) (Ge 10:6-8,13-18 a unchanged).

(4) The Semites (1Ch 1:17-23) (Ge 10:22-29; only scribal changes).

(5) Abram’s descent (1Ch 1:24-27) (Ge 11:10-26 abridged, giving only the Patriarchs).

(6) The sons of Abraham, Keturah, Isaac (1Ch 1:28-34).

Ge 25:1-4,13-16,25,26; 32:28. Reverses the order of Ishmael’s and Keturah’s descendants.

(7) Sons of Esau (1Ch 1:35-52) (Ge 36:4-10).

(8) Kings and sheikhs of Edom (1Ch 1:43,14) (Ge 36:31-43). Scribal changes.

II. Descendants of Jacob (1 Chronicals 2-9).

The tribes arranged chiefly geographically. Judah, as the royal line, is given 100 verses, Levi, as the priestly, 81 verses, Benjamin 50, the other ten 56, Da and Zebulun neglected. His purpose practically confines him to the first three; and these were also the best preserved.

(1) Sons of Israel.

Follows substantially the order in Ge 35. Da is placed before Rachel’s sons. 17 different orders of the tribes in Bible lists.

(2) Genealogies of Judah (1Ch 2:3-4:23).

(a) Descent of Jesse’s sons from Judah (1Ch 2:3-17).

Largely gleaned from the historical books. The sons of Zerah (1Ch 2:6-8) are not found elsewhere. Chelubai is Caleb. Only 7 sons of Jesse are mentioned. Abishai, Joab, Asahel are always designated by their mother’s name, Zeruiah.

(b) Genealogy of Bezalel (1Ch 2:18-20).

The artificer of the tabernacle, hence, greatly interests the Chronicler.

(c) Other descendants of Hezron (1Ch 2:21-24).

(d) The Jerahmeelites (1Ch 2:25-41).

Concededly a very old list of this important clan not found elsewhere. Sheshan (1Ch 2:35), who married his daughter to Jarha, an Egyptian servant, illustrates the introduction of a foreigner into the nation and tribe.

(e) The Calebites (1Ch 2:41-55).

Not elsewhere. The names are largely geographical. A subdivision of the Hezronites. Not Caleb the son of Jephunneh.

(f) David’s descendants (1Ch 3:1-24).

Gives first the sons and their birthplaces, then the kings to Jeconiah and Zedekiah, then the Davidic line from Jeconiah to Zerubbabel, then the grandsons of Zerubbabel and the descendants of Shecaniah. Two other lists of David’s sons (2Sa 5:14-16; 1Ch 14:4-17). Eliphelet and Nogah here are thought to have developed in transcription, with some other changes. Johanan’s name (s. of Josiaih) is given among the kings, though he never reigned. Zedekiah is called son (instead of brother) of Jehoiachin, perhaps a scribal error. "Jah" names extremely numerous. Names of Zerubbabel’s sons are highly symbolic: Meshullam, "Recompensed"; Hananiah, "Jah is gracious"; Shelomith, "Peace"; Hashubah, "Consideration"; Ohel, "Tent," i.e. "Dwelling of Yahweh"; Berechiah, "Jah blesses"; Hasadiah, "Jah is kind"; Jushab-hesed, "Loving-kindness returns"; characteristic of the Exile.

1 Chronicles 3:19-24, beginning with Zerubbabel’s descendants, are obscure, and a battleground of criticism on account of their bearing on the date of Chronicles. There are three possible interpretations:

(1) Following the Hebrew, Zerubbabel’s descendants stop with Pelatiah and Jeshaiah, his grandsons. Then follow three unclassified sets of "sons." No connection is shown between Jeshaiah and these. Then follows Shecaniah’s line with four generations. There are several other instances of unrelated names thus being thrown in. This gives two generations after Zerubbabel.

(2) Still following the Hebrew, assume that Shecaniah after Obadiah is in Zerubbabel’s line. This gives six generations after Zerubbabel.

(3) Following Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate (Jerome’s Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) (but the two latter are of very small critical weight), read in verse 21, "Rephaiah his son, Arnan his son," etc.--a very possible change: eleven generations after Zerubbabel.

According to (3), Ch was written at least 253 years (allowing 23 years to a generation; more probable than 30 or 40) after Zerubbabel (515), hence, after 262 BC; (2) makes it after 373; (1) makes it 459, during Ezra’s life. The book’s last recorded event is Cyrus’ decree (538), which indicates the earliest date. The New Testament casts no light here, none of these names appearing in the genealogies in Matthew or Luke. If Septuagint is correct, Keil suggests that it is a later insertion, a critical device too frequently used to nullify inconvenient facts. The passage itself justifies the statement that "there is no shadow of proof that the families enumerated in 1Ch 3:21, latter part, were descendants of Hananiah the son of Zerubbabel." Against this, and the other indications, the admittedly faulty Septuagint furnishes an insufficient basis for so far-reaching a conclusion.

(g) Fragmentary genealogies of families of Judah (1Ch 4:1-23).


(1) "sons" of Judah, four or five successive generations;

(2) sons of Shobal and Hur;

(3) sons of Chelub;

(4) sons of Caleb, son of Jephunneh;

(5) sons of Jehaleel;

(6) sons of Ezra (of course, not the priest-scribe of the return);

(7) sons of "Bethiah the daughter of Pharaoh whom Mered took";

(8) sons of Shimon;

(9) sons of Ishi;

(10) sons of Shelah.

It is hard to trace the law of association here; which fact has its bearing on the discussion under (f) above. Chelub may be another Caleb. 1Ch 4:9-11 give an interesting name-study, where Jabez by prayer transforms into prosperity the omen of his sorrowful name: "Because I bare him with sorrow," a characteristic note. 1Ch 4:21-23 speak of the linenworkers and potters. Similar, even identical, names have been found on pot-handles-in Southern Palestine. #(3) Genealogy of Simeon (4:24-43).

(a) Simeon’s sons. Genealogy of Shimei. After Ge 46:10; Ex 6:15; Nu 26:12-14.

(b) Dwelling-places of Simeon. After Jos 19:2-8.

(c) Princes and conquests (1Ch 4:34-43).

Source unknown, but considered old. Gray, however, thinks the names of late formation. Meshobab, Jamlech, Joshah, Amaziah, Joel, Jehu, Josibiah, Seraiah, Asiel, Elioenai, Jaakobah, Jeshohaiah, Asaiah, Adiel, Jesimiel, Benaiah, Ziza, Shiphi, Allon, Jedaiah, Shimri, Shemaiah, Ishi, Pelatiah, Neariah, Rephaiah, Uzziel; many undoubtedly old ones; 11 in yah, 5 in ’el. Eliothal sounds post-exilic. The section mentions several exploits of Simeon.

(4) East-Jordanic tribes (1Ch 5:1-24).

As in Simeon above, the usual order, deviated from in instances, is

(1) Introductory: Sons and immediate descendants;

(2) Territory;

(3) Princes or Chiefs;

(4) Incidents.

(a) Reuben (1Ch 5:1-10).

Partly follows Gen, Nu; but only as to first generation. Very fragmentary and connections obscure.

(b) Gad (1Ch 5:11-17).

First generation omitted. Chronicler draws from genealogies "in the days of" Jotham and Jeroboam.

(c) Half-Manasseh (1Ch 5:23,14).

The whole tribe is treated of (1Ch 7:14 ). Here only the seats and heads of houses.

(5) Levi (1Ch 6:1-81).

Illustrates more fully the Chronicler’s attitude and methods.

(a) High priests from Levi to Jehozadak (the Exile) (1Ch 6:1-15).

(i) Levi’s sons: Gershon, Kohath, Merari (Ge 46:11; Ex 6:16).

(ii) Kohath’s sons: Amram, Izhar, Hebron, Uzziel (Ex 6:18).

(iii) Amram’s "sons": Aaron, Moses, Miriam (Ex 6:20,23 (except Miriam); Nu 26:59 f).

(iv) High priests from Eleazar. Also (partly) Ezra (7:1-5):

1. Eleazar

2. Phinehas

3. Abishua

4. Bukki

5. Uzzi

6. Zerahiah

7. Meraioth

8. Amariah

9. Ahitub

10. Zadok

11. Ahimaaz

12. Azariah

13. Johnnan

14. Azariah

15. Amariah

16. Ahitub

17. Zadok

18. Shallum

19. Hilkiah

20. Azariah

21. Seraiah

22. Jehozadak

Noteworthy omissions: Eli’s house, Eli, Phinehas, Ahitub, Ahimelech, Abiathar, because set aside for Zadok’s in Solomon’s time; Bukki to Zadok being their contemporaries; but the list also omits Amariah in the reign of Jehoshaphat (perhaps), Jehoiada, Joash’s "power behind the throne," Urijah in Ahaz’ day, Azariah in Hezekiah’s. It has been thought that this was done in the interests of a chronological scheme of the Chronicler, making 23 generations of 40 years from the Exodus to the Captivity, or 920 years. The Hebrew generation, however, was as likely to be 30 as 40 years, and as a matter of fact was nearer 20. The apparent number of generations from Aaron to the Captivity, adding the data from the historical books, is 29, making a generation about 24 years. The reasons for the omission here, as for many others, are not apparent. Outside of Chronicles and Ezra we know nothing of Abishua, Bukki, Uzzi, Zerahiah, Meraioth, the first Amaziah, Johanan, Amariah, Ahitub, Zadok 2, Shallum, Azariah 3. The list touches historical notices in Aaron, Eleazar, Phinehas, Zadok, Ahimaaz, Azariah 2, contemporary of Solomon, perhaps Amariah, contemporary of Jehoshaphat, Azariah, contemporary of Uzziah, Hilkiah, contemporary of Joshua, Seraiah slain by the Chaldeans, and Jehozadak. The recurrence of similar names in close succession is characteristically Jewish (but compare names of popes and kings). It is seen in the list beginning with Jehozadak: Joshua, Joiakim, Eliashib, Joiada, Jonathan, Jaddua, Onias, Simon, Eleazar, Manasseh, Onias, Simon, Onias, Joshua. Also about Christ’s time: Eleazar, Jesus, Annas, Ismael, Eleazar, Simon, Joseph, Jonathan, Theophilus, Simon, although these latter do not succeed in a genealogical line.

(b) The three Levitical clans (1Ch 6:16-19). After Ex 6:17-19; Nu 3:17-20.

(c) Lineal descendants of Gershom: seven, 1Ch 6:20,21; thirteen, 1Ch 6:39-43. See also 1Ch 23:7.

The two lists (1Ch 6:20,21 and 6:39-43) are clearly the same:

Gershom Gershom

Libni Jahath

Zimmah Zimmah

Joah Ethan

Iddo Adaiah

Zerah Zerah

Jeatherai Ethni







Jahath, Zimmah, Zerah are in both. By slight changes Joah, yow’ah, is Ethan, ’ethan; Iddo, `idow, is `idaiah, Adaiah; Jeatherai, y¦’thriy, is Ethni, ’ethniy. Shimei may have dropped from one and Libni from the other. Jahath and Shimei have been transposed. In 1Ch 23:7 Libni is Ladan.

(d) Pedigrees of Samuel (1Ch 6:27,28; 33-35). See also 1Sa 1:1; 8:2.

We have three pedigrees of Samuel, all suffering in transcription:

(1) 1Ch 6:22-24,28

(2) 1Ch 6:33-38

(3) 1Sa 1:1; 8:2

Kohath Kohath

Amminadab Izhar

Korah Korah

Assir, Elkanah,

Ebiasaph Ebiasaph

Assir Assir

Tahath Tahath

Uriel Zephaniah

Uzziah Azariah

Shaul Joel

Elkanah Elkanah

Amasai Amasai

Ahimoth Mahath Elkanah Elkanah

Zophai Zuph Zuph

Nahath Thoah Thohu

Eliab Eliel Elihu

Jeroham Jeroham Jeroham

Elkanah Elkanah Elkanah

Samuel Samuel Samuel

Joe (Vashni) and Joe Joel



The text is obscure. Septuagint reads (1Ch 6:26), "Elkanah his (Ahimoth’s) son, Zophai his son." It has Izhar in (1) for Amminadab, as has Hebrew in Ex 6:18,21. Uriel for Zephaniah is unexplainable. Uzziah and Azariah are exchangeable. The other variations are transcriptional. Joe has dropped out of the first list, and the following words, now in 1Sa 8:2, and the Syriac here: "and the second," v-sh-n, have been read "Vashni." 1Sa 1:1 calls Zuph an Ephraimite. The Chronicler’s claiming him (and Samuel) seems to some another instance of Levitical bias and acquisitiveness. The genealogy is also found "clearly artificial," Zuph being a territory, and Toah, Tohu, Nahath, a family. But "Ephraimite" is either merely local, the family having been assigned residence there (Jos 21:5; 1Ch 6:66), or (Hengstenberg, Ewald) because, being thus assigned, it has been incorporated into the tribe. Hannah’s vow to devote him to Yahweh is said (Curtis, Moore, ICC in the place cited.) to show that he was no Levite, in which case no vow was necessary. But Elkanah’s Ephraimite citizenship may have obscured in Hannah’s mind the Levitical descent. In the disorganized times of the Judges an Ephraimite woman may well have been ignorant of, or indifferent to, the Levitical regulation, She, or the author of 1Sa 1:1, must also have forgotten that every male that openeth the womb from any tribe is equally God’s property A mother’s vow to devote her firstborn son to Yahweh, beyond recall or redemption, and to seal his consecration by the significant symbol of the unshaved head, is not hard to imagine in either a Levite or an Ephramite, and equally "unnecessary" in either case. Heman, ending the pedigree (2), was David’s contemporary.

(e) Pedigree of Asaiah the Merarite (1Ch 6:29,30).

Merari: Mahli: Libni; Shimei: Uzzah: Shimea: Haggiah: Asaiah. Hard to adjust or place. Libni and Shimei are elsewhere Gershonites, but the same name is frequently found in different tribes or clans. Information below Mahli is entirely wanting.

(f) Descent of David’s three singers, Heman, Asaph, Ethan (1Ch 6:33-47).

(i) Heman has been given under (d) ; 20 links.

(ii) Asaph: Getshorn: Jahath: Shimei: Zimmah: Ethan: Adaiah: Zerah: Ethni (Jeatherai): Malchijah: Baaseiah: Michael: Shimea: Berechiah: Asaph; 15 links.

(iii) Ethan: Merari: Mushi: Mahli: Shemet: Bani: Amzi: Hilkiah: Amaziah: Hashabiah: Malluch: Abdi: Kishi: Ethan; 12 links.

Hardly anywhere is the Chronicler’s good faith more questioned than in these lists. Finding in his day the three guilds of singers claiming descent from David’s three, and through these from Levi, he fits them out with pedigrees, borrowing names from 1Ch 6:16-20, and filling out with his favorite names, or those of his own invention, or from current lists. To make Asaph contemporary with David, he adds Malchijah, Maaseiah, Michael, Shimei, Berechiah. He helps out Ethan with Bani, Amzi, Hilkiah, Amaziah, Hashabiah, Malluch, Abdi, Kishi. The names added are very frequent in Chronicles and Ezra, not frequent in older writings. Aside from the general objection to this thoroughgoing discredit of Chronicles, and theory of religious development in Israel on which it is based, it may be said:

(1) The Chronicler’s failure to give his three families nearly the same number of links is suspicious, but if he took an old list, as it came to him, it is natural.

(2) The fact that these added names occur many more times in Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah indicates simply that Levitical names occur frequently in a writer and among a people whose interests are Levitical. No one would look among the Roundheads for either classical or aristocratic names.

(3) In no tribe would such names be more likely to recur, naturally or purposely, than in the Levitical.

(4) The Chronicler has inserted among his new names 6 in yah and only 1 in ’el, and that far down the list.

(5) Of the "added" names Malchijah occurs in Jer 21:1; Masseiah, in 29:21,25; 35:4, in every case priestly or Levitical. Michael occurs in Nu 13:13. Berechiah is the name of the prophet Zechariah’s father. Hilkiah is the name of Joshua’s high priest. Amaziah reigned 800 BC. Bani is mentioned in 2Sa 23:36 (though this is thought to be copied from Chronicles). Shimea is concededly early. Of the 13 "added names" 8 are found elsewhere. Of the others, Amzi, Abdi, Kishi (Kish, Kushaiah) have an early look. Malluch might be late. If Hashabiah is late the author has scattered it well through the history, 1 several generations before David, 3 in David’s time, 1 in Josiah’s, 1 in Ezra’s, 3 in Nehemiah’s, in every case a Levite.

(7) While these "added" names occur more times in Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, than elsewhere, and 5 of the 13 occur nowhere else, it is also true that more than 500 other names also occur only in these three books, and that the total names in these, to say nothing of the "P" portions elsewhere, outnumber the names in the other books about three to one. Other things being equal, three mentions of any common name ought to be found in these books to one in the others. Of all names applied to more than four persons the usual proportion in these books by count is four, to one elsewhere.

(g) Pedigree of Ahimaaz (1Ch 6:50-53). Parallel with 1Ch 6:4-8.

(h) Dwelling-places of Levi.

(6) The six remaining tribes.

(a) Issachar (1Ch 7:1-5).

1 Chronicles 7:1 derived from Ge 46:13; Nu 26:23,14. The rest peculiar to Chronicles. Closes with a record of fighting men, instead of the usual statement of dwelling-places.

(b) Benjamin (1Ch 7:6-13).

A very difficult section. It is considered a Zebulunite genealogy which has been Benjaminized, because

(1) there is a Benjamite list elsewhere;

(2) Benjamin is out of place here, while in 13 out of 17 tribal lists Zebulun comes at this point, and in this list has no other place; (3) the numbers of Benjamin’s sons differ from other Benjamite genealogies;

(4) the names of Bela’s and Becher’s sons are different here;

(5) many names are not Benjamite;

(6) Tarshish, in this list, is a sea-coast name appropriate to Zebulun, but not Benjamin. But (1) it is called Benjamite; (2) doublets are not unknown in Chronicles; (3) Da is also neglected; (4) many Benjamite names are found; (5) both the Zebulunite material and the Benjamite material elsewhere is too scanty for safe conclusions.

(c) Dan, 1Ch 7:12, from Ge 46:23.

Aher (" another") is a copyist’s error or substitute for Dan.

(d) Naphtali, 1Ch 7:13, from Ge 46:24 (transcriptional changes).

(e) Manasseh, East and West (1Ch 7:14-19).

The text of 1Ch 7:14,15 very corrupt. No other notice is found of the sons in 1Ch 7:16,17: Peresh, Sheresh, Ulam, Rakere, Bedan.

(f) Ephraim to Joshua (1Ch 7:20-29).

Contains an interesting personal note in the mourning of Ephraim over his sons Ezer and Elead, and the subsequent birth of Beriah. Interpreted to mean that the clans Ezer and Elead met with disaster, on which the clan Beriah became prominent.

(g) The seats of Joseph’s sons (1Ch 7:28,29).

Hard to say why this has been placed here.

(h) Asher (1Ch 7:30-40).

The earliest names derived from Ge 46:17. Gray considers the others ancient.

(i) Benjamin (1Ch 8:1-40).

(i) Sons of Benjamin. After Ge 46:21, with variations. See (6) (b).

(ii) Descendants of Ehud (1Ch 8:6-28). Text very corrupt, obscure.

(iii) The house of Saul (1Ch 8:29-38); repeated (1Ch 9:35-44).

In this passage two exceptions to the usual treatment of Baal compounds. Ishbaal and Meribbaal here are Ishbosheth and Mephibosheth in S.

(7) The inhabitants of Jerusalem (1Ch 9:1-34).

With variations in Ne 11:1-13. This passage has been thought an interpolation, but it is the Chronicler’s custom to give dwelling-places. Perhaps this and Ne are two independent abridgments of the same document. This probably describes post-exilic conditions. 1Ch 9:1 and 2 here, and Ne 11 seem conclusive on this point. Four classes of returning exiles:

(a) The children of Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim, Manasseh.

Constituting "the laity," "Israel."

(b) The priests.

Agreeing with Nehemiah, but abridged.

(c) The Levites. Paralleling Nehemiah, but not exactly.

(d) Nethinim or porters. Fuller than Nehemiah, and different.

(8) The house of Saul (1Ch 9:35-44, repeating 9:29-38).

(22) David’s Knights (1 Chronicals 11:10-47).

Discussed under (19). Adds to the list, Adina, son of Shiza, Reubenite; Hanan, son of Maacah, Joshaphat the Mithnite, Uzziah the Ashterathite, Shama and Jeiel the sons of Hotham the Aroerite, Jediael the son of Shimri, and Joah his brother, the Tizite, Eliel the Mahavite, and Jeribai and Joshaviah, the sons of Elnaam, and Ithmah the Moabite, Eliel, and Obed, and Jaasieh the Mezobaite.

(23) David’s Recruits at Ziklag (1 Chronicals 12-22).

Found only here. Contains 23 names from Benjamin (some may be Judahite); 11 from Gad; 8 from Manasseh; nothing to show that the names are not old.

(24) David’s Musicians and Porters at the Bringing of the Ark (1 Chronicals 15:16-24).

Also 1Ch 16:5,6,37-43. Each division of the Levites represented by a chief musician.

(25) David’s Organization of the Kingdom (1 Chronicals 23-27).

I. The Levites (1 Chronicals 23).

(1) The family of Gershon (1Ch 23:7-11); 9 houses.

(2) The family of Kohath (1Ch 23:12-20); 11 houses.

(3) The family of Merari (1Ch 23:21-23); 4 houses.

II. The Priests (1 Chronicals 24).

24 divisions; 16 divided among descendants of Eleazar, headed by Zadok; 8 among those of Ithamar, headed by Ahimelech (perhaps an error for Abiathar); but perhaps Ahimelech’s. Abiathar, son of Ahimelech, was acting for his father.

(1) Eleazar’s courses: Jehoiarib, Harim, Malchijah, Hakkoz, Joshua, Eliashib, Huppah, Bilgah, Hezer, Aphses, Pethahiah, Jehezekel, Jachin, Gamul, Delaiah, Maaziah.

(2) Ithamar: Jedaiah, Seorim, Mijamin, Abijah, Shecaniah, Jachim, Joshebeab, Immer.

Josephus gives the same names of courses (Ant., VII, xiv, 7; Vita, 1). Several are mentioned in Apocrypha, Talmud, and the New Testament. Jehoiarib, Jedaiah, Harim, Malchijah, Mijarain, Abijah, Shecaniah, Bilgah, Maaziah, are found in one or both of Nehemiah’s lists.

(3) Supplementary list of Levites (1Ch 20-31).

Repeats the Levitical families in 1Ch 23:6-23, omitting the Gershonites, adding to the Kohathites and Merarites.

III. The Singers (1 Chronicals 25).

(1) Their families, classified under the three great groups, descendants of Asaph, Jeduthun (Ethan), Heman.

A curious problem is suggested by the fact that the names in verse 4, beginning with Hanani, with a few very slight changes, read: "Hanan (`Have mercy’) -iah (`O Yahweh’); Hanani (~`Have mercy’); Eli-athah (’Thou art my God’); Giddalti (`I have magnified’) (and) Romamti (`exalted’) (thy) Ezer (`help’); Josh-bekashah (`In the seat of hardness’); Mallothi (`I spake of it’); Hothir (`Gave still’); Mahazioth (`Visions’)." How, or why, this came among these names, cannot be said.

(2) The 24 courses of 12 singers each, of which courses numbers 1, 3, 5, 7 fell to Asaph; numbers 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 14 fell to Jeduthun; numbers 6, 9, 11, 13, 15-24 fell to Heman.

IV. Gatekeepers and Other Officers (1 Chronicals 26).

(1) Genealogies and stations of the gatekeepers (1Ch 26:1-19).

(2) Those in charge of the temple treasury (1Ch 26:20-28).

(3) Those in charge of the "outward business."

Subordinate magistrates, tax-collectors, etc.

V. The Army, and David’s Officers (1 Chronicals 27).

(1) The army (1Ch 27:1-15).

12 officers, each commanding 24,000 men, and in charge for one month; chosen from David’s knights.

(2) The tribal princes (1Ch 27:16-24).

After the fashion of Nu 12-15. Gad and Asher are omitted. The 12 are made up by including the Levites and the Aaronites.

(3) The king’s twelve stewards (1Ch 27:25-31).

(4) The king’s court officers (1Ch 27:32-34).

Counselor and scribe: Jonathan, the king’s uncle, otherwise unknown; tutor: Jehiel; counselor: Ahithophel; "the king’s friend" (closest confidant?): Hushai. Possibly two priests are next included: Jehoiada the son of Benaiah, and Abiathar, high priest of the Ithamar branch. But perhaps it should read, "Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada." If two priests are intended, it seems strange that Zadok is not one. The list ends with the commander-in-chief, Joab.

This elaborate organization in every part and branch of the kingdom is looked upon as the Chronicler’s glowing Utopian dream of what must have been, underrating the organizing power of the great soldier and statesman.

(26) Ezra 2:1-63.--The Exiles Who Returned with Zerubbabel.

Paralleled in Ne 7:6-73. 9 "Jah," 4 "El" names in 107.

(1) The Leaders (Ezra 2:2).

(2) Numbers, according to Families (Ezra 2:3-19).

18 of Ezra’s numbers differ from Nehemiah’s.

(3) Numbers according to Localities (Ezra 2:20-35).

10 towns probably Judahite, 7 Benjamite.

(4) The Priests (Ezra 2:39,42).

Only 4 families, representing 3 Davidic courses.

(5) The Levites (Ezra 2:43,14).

Among the singers, only Asaphites.

(6) The Porters (Ezra 2:45).

3 old names, 3 new ones.

(7) The "Nethinim" (Temple-Slaves) (Ezra 2:46-56).

(8) The Children of Solomon's Servants|Solomon’s Servants (Slaves) (Ezra 2:57-59).

(9) Those Who Could Not Prove Their Descent.

(a) General population.

Three families, children of Delaiah, Tobiah, Nekoda.

(b) Priestly families.

Hobaiah, Hakkoz, Barzillai. Hakkoz, the seventh of the Davidic courses, perhaps succeeded later in establishing their right (Ne 3:21).

(27) Ezra 6:1-5.--Ezra’s Genealogy.

An ascending genealogy: Ezra, son of Seraiah, son of Azariah, son of Hilkiah, son of Shallum, son of Zadok, son of Ahitub, son of Amaraiah, son of Azariah, son of Meraioth, son of Zerahiah, son of Uzzi, son of Bukki, son of Abishua, son of Phinehas, son of Eleazar, son of Aaron; 16 links. Follows 1Ch 6:7-10 down to Zadok, then omits 7 to Shallum, besides the 7 omitted in Chronicles.

(28) Ezra 8:1-20.--Numbers and Leaders of Those Who Returned with Zerubbabel.

Numbers much smaller than in Zerubbabel’s list (Ezr 2:1-14). Perhaps 3 new families, Shecaniah, Shelomith, Joah; 7 more leaders. A much smaller proportion of Levites; among them a "man of discretion," perhaps a name, "Ishsecel," of the sons of Mahli, therefore a Merarite, with other Merarites, 39 in all.

(29) Ezra 10:18-44.--Jews Who Had Married Foreign Women.

(1) The Priests (Ezra 10:18-22).

Seventeen in all; members of the high priest’s family, and of the Davidic courses of Immer and Harim, besides the family of Pashhur.

(2) The Levites (Ezra 10:23); 6 in All.

(3) Singers and Porters (Ezra 10:24); 4 in All.

(4) "Israel," "the Laity" (Ezra 10:25-43).

Sixteen families represented; 86 persons. Out of a total of 163 names, 39 yah compounds, 19 ’el compounds, 8 prefixed.

(30) Nehemiah 3:1-12.--The Leaders in the Repair of the Wall.

Thirty-eight leaders; in 30 instances the father’s name also given. As far as mentioned, all from Judah and Jerusalem.

(31) Nehemiah 7:7-63.--Those Who Returned with Zerubbabel.

Follows Ezr 2:1-63, with transcriptional variations in names and numbers.

(32) Nehemiah 8:4-7.--Levites and Others Who Assisted Ezra in Proclaiming the Law.

(33) Nehemiah 10:1-27.--The Sealers of the Covenant.

Twenty-two priests, 17 Levites, 20 heads of families already mentioned, 24 individuals.

(34) Nehemiah 11:3-36.--Chief Dwellers in Jerusalem and Vicinity.

Parallels in 1Ch 9:9-22. Some omissions and variations; 5 priestly courses given, Joiarib, course number 1; Jedaiah, number 2; Jachin, number 23; Malchijah, number 5; Immer, number 6. 24 "Jah," 6 "El" names out of 82.

(35) Nehemiah 12:1-8.--Priests and Levites Who Went Up with Zerubbabel.

Compare with priests’ lists in Ne 10:2-8 (33), and with priests under Joiakim (Ne 12:12-21 (36)). They are names of families. See Ne 12:12.

(36) Nehemiah 12:10,11.--High Priests from Jeshua to Jaddua.

(1) Jeshua, 538 to 520 BC.

(2) Joiakim.

(3) Eliashib, 446 till after 433.

(4) Joiada, about 420.

(5) Jonathan, Johanan, 405 to 362.

(6) Jaddua, to 323.

This list bears upon the date of Ezra-Nehemiah. Jaddua was high priest when Alexander visited Jerusalem, 335 BC. If the Darius of verse 22 is Darius Nothus (425 to 405 BC), and Jaddua, a young boy, is mentioned as the heir to the high-priesthood, this passage was written before 400. If Jaddua’s actual high-priesthood is meant, and Darius Codomannus (336 to 330 BC) is the Darius here, the date may be about 330. The enumeration of families here is assigned to the time of Joiakim, before 405, and the latest recorded events to the time of the high priest before Jaddua (Ne 12:23; 13:28), hence, before 362. The hypothesis of an addition by some scribe after 350 is possible, but not necessary.

(37) Nehemiah 12:12-21.--Heads of Priestly Families.

(38) Nehemiah 12:22-26.--Levites and Porters under High Priest Johanan.

(39) Nehemiah 12:31-42.--Princes and Priests at Dedication of the Wall.

(40) Matthew 1:1-17.--The Genealogy of Jesus Christ.

(See separate article).

(41) Luke 3:23-38.--The Genealogy of Jesus.

(See separate article).


Commentaries in the place cited., especially on Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Chronicles, Ezra-Nehemiah, especially C. F. Keil, Bible Comm., 1872; E. Bertheau, in Kurzgef. exeget. Handb. zum Altes Testament, 1873; Bible ("Speaker’s") Commentary (Browne, Gen; Clark, Ex; Espin, Nu; Rawlinson, Chronicles, etc.); W. B. Barnes, Cambridge Bible, Chronicles; R. Kittel, Die Bucher der Chronicles; Driver, Westminster Comm., Gen; ICC (Gray, Nu; Moore, Jgs; Curtis, Chronicles, etc.); Pulpit Comm.; W. R. Harvey-Jellie, Ch in Century Bible; S. Oettli, Kgf. Kom., 1889; O. Zoeckler, Lange’s Comm., etc.

Encyclopedia arts., especially HDB, E. L. Curtis, "Genealogies"; SBD, A. C. Hervey, "Genealogies"; EB, S. A. Cook, "Genealogies"; EB, 11th edition, S. A. Cook, "Genealogies"; other encyclopedia arts., under specific books, tribes, names, genealogies.

General works: Gray, Studies in Hebrew Proper Names; Hommel, The Ancient Hebrew Tradition; A.C. Hervey, The Genealogies of our Lord; Sprenger, Das Leben u. d. Lehre d. Mohammad; W.R. Smith, Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia; J. Wellhausen, De Gentibus et Familiis Judaeis; J. Wellhausen, Prolegomena, 1883 (ET), 177-277; McLennan, Studies in Ancient History.

Magazine articles: H.W. Hogg, "Genealogy of Benjamin," JQR, XI, 1899, 96-133, 329-44; M. Berlin, "Notes on Genealogies of Levi, 1Ch 23-26," Jewish Quarterly Review, XII, 1900, 291-98; M. Berlin, "Gershonite and Merarite Genealogies," JQR, XII, 1901, 291 ff; H. W. Hogg, "Ephraimite Genealogy," JQR, XIII, 1900-1901, 147-54; J. Marquart, "Genealogies of Benjamin," JQR, XIV, 1902, 343-51; J. W. Rothstein, Die Genealogie das Konigs Jojachin und seiner Nachkommen in geschichtlicher Beleuchtung, Berlin: Reuther u. Reichold, 1902; R.S. Macalister, "The Royal Potters, 1Ch 4:23," The Expositor Times, XVI, 1905, 379 ff; R. S. Macalister, "The Craftsmen Guild of the Tribe of Judah," PEFS, 1905, 243-53, 328-42; C. C. Torrey, "The Greek versions of Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah," Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, XXV. 1903, 139 ff, and many others.

Philip Wendell Crannell