For the genealogies of Genealogy of Jesus Christ. Other NT persons generally appear without indication of their descent. Occasionally the father is named (e.g., “James and John, the sons of Zebedee,”
It is certain that the NT shows far less concern for the genealogy of human beings than does the OT. In the OT, God was bringing together a chosen people who would be a nation peculiarly devoted to preserving his revelation until, in the fullness of time, he sent his Son, who would draw to himself a new people, united not by descent from a common human ancestry but by a genealogy of one generation only: children of God by a new and spiritual birth.
Bibliography: J. Pedersen, Israel, Its Life and Culture, vol. 1, 1926, p. 257; J. O. Buswell, Jr., Aof the Christian Religion, vol. 1, 1962, pp. 325-43; M. D. Johnson, The Purpose of Biblical Genealogies, 1969; R. R. Wilson, Genealogy and History in the Biblical World, 1977.——ER
GENEALOGY je ne ŏl’ ə je (יַ֫חַשׂ, H3510; γενεαλογία, γένεσις, genealogy, to reckon by genealogy, generation). The ancestry or descent of individuals in the Biblical record.
Genealogies are often given in the Bible and have various uses in the unfolding story of redemption. Inasmuch as history necessarily clusters around great men, the connected history of God’s dealing with men involves listing men in their connections with others of various ages. Genealogies and chronologies form the connecting link from early days to the end of the Biblical period. Usually other ancient histories are partial and piecemeal. By means of genealogical records, God has given a connected history from Adam to Christ.
Genealogies also have lesser uses in the sacred record. God’s blessings were often passed on in the family line and these genealogies express the covenant connections of ancient Israel. Military duty was by families. Certain offices such as the priesthood, the Levitical work, and the kingship, were hereditary, and genealogies trace the perpetuation of these offices. Also, land tenure in Israel was carried on chiefly through male descent. Genealogies therefore certified the title to ancestral holdings. Finally, in a tribal or semitribal community, a man’s genealogy was his identification and means of location. It is roughly equal to the addresses of modern houses. People are located by country, state, city, and street. In a similar way, Achan, for example, was identified as of the tribe of Judah, the family of Zerah, the household of Zabdi, the son of Carmi (
Principal genealogies of Scripture.
The ancient history of the race is compressed into the first chs. of Genesis. Except for a few incidents, this history consists of the listing of famous men and nations. There are two genealogies before the Flood (
The genealogies in
Actually this difference between
The same remarks apply to
In the rest of the Pentateuch there are many shorter genealogies. These genealogies usually first present a brief reference to the worldly descendants, followed by a more detailed history of the godly line.
Abraham’s family outside of Isaac is given very briefly in
The history of the time of the judges is given in a chronological rather than genealogical format. The judgeship was not hereditary but charismatic, i.e., God individually called the judges to their tasks. The period of the judges is spanned by one brief genealogy—that at the end of the
For the history of the monarchy, the only genealogy of any extent is that of King David, whose line is traced in the books of Kings through eighteen generations to the captivity. The genealogy of the high priests is not given in the histories, though it was known and is given in the collected genealogies of Chronicles. The genealogies of the prophets are not given, for like that of the judges, their office was charismatic and not hereditary.
The remaining genealogies of any consequence in the OT are those of Ezra (
Many of the names and the incidental references to habitation and family events are found only in Chronicles. The author (now admitted by many critical scholars to have written c. 400 b.c.) obviously had access to ancient books of genealogies. Such books are referred to in
In American culture, genealogies are seldom kept, but in other cultures genealogies are more extensively preserved. The writer has had students from Korea and from India who possessed family records back forty generations and felt this to be not unusual. He has talked with an Arab in Jerusalem who named his child Edessa because his ancestors suffered in the persecutions of Edessa (3rd cent.). Such genealogies were kept even more in ancient times. A man living in China claims to be the seventy-seventh in direct descent from Confucius. In tribal cultures and in the settled life of ancient nations, such genealogies were apparently common.
The genealogies of Christ are recorded in
As mentioned above, it is clear that many OT genealogies are incomplete. There are four links from Levi to Moses (
These facts are necessary to know before examining the genealogies in
Furthermore, any view that holds the Flood to have destroyed all men all over the earth, must place the Flood earlier than 292 years before Abraham who lived about 2000 b.c. There is a record, practically continuous, of Egyp. dynasties going back to almost 3000 b.c.—1000 years before Abraham. The city of Jericho in the Jordan valley shows many layers of mud brick going back long before 3000 b.c., which any destructive flood would surely have washed away. The genealogy of
Actually the genealogies in
A word may be said about NT usages of the word genealogy. The foolish questions and genealogies mentioned in
Commentaries in loc. (esp. ICC, Curtis and Madsen on Chronicles); W. H. Green, “Primeval Chronology,” BS (1890), 285-304 (quoted extensively in Buswell, see below); P. W. Crannel, ISBE II (1929), 1183-1196; J. G. Machen, Theof Christ (1930), 204-209; J. O. Buswell Jr., A of the Christian Religion, I (1962), 325-343.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)
2. Biblical References
3. Importance of Genealogies
4. Their Historical Value
5. Principles of Interpretation
6. Principles of Compilation
8. Principal Genealogies and Lists
2. Biblical References:
3. Importance of Genealogies:
Genealogical accuracy, always of interest both to primitive and more highly civilized peoples, was made especially important by the facts that the land was promised to the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, that the priesthood was exclusively hereditary, that the royal succession of Judah lay in the Davidic house, that the division and occupation of the land was according to tribes, families and fathers’ houses; and for the Davididae, at least, that the Messiah was to be of the house of David. The exile and return, which fixed indelibly in the Jewish mind the ideas of monotheism, and of the selection and sacred mission of Israel, also fixed and deepened the genealogical idea, prominently so in the various assignments by families, and in the rejection in various ways of those who could not prove their genealogies. But it seems extreme to date, as with many modern critics, its real cultivation from this time. In the importance attached to genealogies the Hebrew resembles many other ancient literatures, notably the Egyptian Greek, and Arabic, but also including Romans, Kelts, Saxons, the earliest history naturally being drawn upon genealogical as well as on annalie lines. A modern tendency to overestimate the likeness and underestimate the unlikeness of the Scripture to its undoubtedly cognate literatures finds in the voluminous artificial genealogical material, which grew up in Arabia after the time of the caliph Omar, an almost exact analogue to the genealogical interest at the time of the return. This, however, is on the assumption of the late date of most of the genealogical material in the older New Testament books, and rests in turn on the assumption that the progress of religious thought and life in Israel was essentially the same as in all other countries; an evolutionary development, practically, if not theoretically, purely naturalistic in its genesis and progress.
4. Their Historical Value:
The direct historical value of the Scripture genealogies is variously estimated. The critically reconstructive school finds them chiefly in the late (priestly) strata of the early books, and dates Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah (our fullest sources) about 300 BC, holding it to be a priestly reconstruction of the national history wrought with great freedom by the "Chronicler." Upon this hypothesis the chief value of the genealogies is as a mirror of the mind and ideas of their authors or recorders, a treasury of reflections on the geographical, ethnological and genealogical status as believed in at their time, and a study of the effect of naive and exaggerated patriotism dealing with the supposed facts of national life, or else, in the extreme instance, a highly interesting example of bold and inventive juggling with facts by men with a theory, in this particular case a priestly one, as with the "Chronicler." To more conservative scholars who accept the Old Testament at its face value, the genealogies are a rich mine of historical, personal and ethnographic, as well as religious, information, whose working, however, is much hindered by the inevitable corruption of the text, and by our lack of correlative explanatory information. Much interesting illustrative matter may be looked for from such archaeological explorations as those at Gezer and elsewhere under the
5. Principles of Interpretation:
In the evaluation and interpretation of the genealogies, certain facts and principles must be held in mind.
(1) Lists of names necessarily suffer more in transmission than other literature, since there is almost no connectional suggestion as to their real form. Divergences in different versions, or in different stages, of the same genealogy are therefore to be looked for, with many tangles hard to unravel, and it is precisely at this point that analytic and constructive criticism needs to proceed most modestly and restrain any possible tendency unduly to theorize.
(2) Frequently in the Scriptural lists names of nations, countries, cities, districts or clans are found mingled with the names of individuals. This is natural, either as the personification of the clan or nation under the name of its chief, or chief progenitor, or as the designation of the individual clan, family or nation, from its location, so common among many nations. Many of the cases where this occurs are so obvious that the rule may not be unsafe to consider all names as probably standing for individuals where the larger geographical or other reference is not unmistakably clear. This is undoubtedly the intent and understanding of those who transmitted and received them.
(3) It is not necessary to assume that the ancestors of various tribes or families are eponymous, even though otherwise unknown. The Scriptural explanation of the formation of tribes by the expansion and division of families is not improbable, and is entitled to a certain presumption of correctness. Furthermore, it is extremely difficult to establish a stopping-point for the application of the eponymous theory; under its spell the sons of Jacob disappear, and Jacob, Isaac and even Abraham become questionable.
(4) The present quite popular similar assumption that personal details in the genealogy stand for details of tribal history, as, for instance, the taking of a concubine means rather an alliance with, or absorption of, an inferior tribe or clan, is a fascinating and far-reaching generalization, but it lacks confirmation, and would make of the Scripture an allegorical enigma in which historical personages and events, personified peoples or countries, and imaginary ancestors are mingled in inextricable confusion.
(5) Scriptural genealogies are often given a regular number of generations by omitting various intermediate steps. The genealogies of Jesus, for instance, cover 42 generations, in 3 subdivisions of 14 each. Other instances are found in the Old Testament, where the regularity or symmetry is clearly intentional. Instance Jacob’s 70 descendants, and the 70 nations of
(6) Much perplexity and confusion is avoided by remembering that other modes of entrance into the family, clan, tribe or nation obtained than that by birth: capture, adoption, the substitution of one clan for another just become extinct, marriage. Hence, "son of," "father of," "begat," have broader technical meanings, indicating adoptive or official connection or "descent," as well as actual consanguinity, nearer or remote, "son" also meaning "grandson," "great-grandson," etc. Instance Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, of the tribe of Judah, styled (
(7) The repetition of the same name in the same genealogy, as in that of the high priests (
(8) The existence of the same name in different genealogies is not uncommon, and neither implies nor should cause confusion.
(9) The omission of one or many links in the succession, often clearly caused by the desire for symmetry, is frequent where the cause is unknown, the writers being careful only to indicate the connection more or less generally, without feeling bound to follow every step. Tribes were divided into families, and families into fathers’ houses; tribe, family and fathers’ house regularly constituting links in a formal genealogy, while between them and the person to be identified any or all links may be omitted. In similar fashion, there is an absence of any care to keep the successive generations absolutely distinct in a formal fashion, son and grandson being designated as alike "son" of the same ancestor.
(10) Genealogies are of two forms, the descending, as
(11) Feminine names are occasionally found, where there is anything remarkable about them, as Sarai and Milcah (
(12) The state of the text is such, especially in Chronicles, that it is not easy, or rather not possible, to construct a complete genealogical table after the modern form. Names and words have dropped out, and other names have been changed, so that the connection is often difficult and sometimes impossible to trace. The different genealogies also represent different stages in the history and, at many places, cannot with any knowledge now at our command be completely adjusted to each other, just as geographical notices at different periods must necessarily be inconsistent.
(13) In the present state of our knowledge, and of the text, and also considering the large and vague chronological methods of the Hebrews, the genealogies can give us comparatively little chronological assistance. The uncertainty as to the actual length of a generation, and the custom of frequently omitting links in the descent, increases the difficulty; so that unless they possess special marks of completeness, or have outstanding historical relationships which determine or corroborate them, or several parallel genealogies confirm each other, they must be used with great caution. Their interest is historical, biographical, successional or hereditary, rather than chronological.
6. Principles of Compilation:
The principal genealogical material of the Old Testament is found in Ge 5; 10; 11; 22; 25; 29; 30; 35; 36; 46; Ex 6; Nu 1; 2; 7; 10; 13; 26; 34; scattered notices in Josh, Ruth, 1 Sam; 2Sa 3; 5; 23; 1Ki 4; 1Ch 1-9; 11; 12; 15; 23-27; 2Ch 23; 29; Ezr 2; 7; 10; Ne 3; 7; 10; 11; 12. The genealogies of our Lord (
Chronicles furnishes us the largest amount of genealogical information, where coincident with the older genealogies, clearly deriving its data from them. Its extra-canonical sources are a matter of considerable difference among critics, many holding that the books cited by the Chronicler as his sources ("The Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah," "The Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel," "The History of Samuel the Seer," "The History of Nathan the Prophet," etc., to the number of perhaps 16) are our canonical books, with the addition of a "Midrashic," from which he quotes the most freely. But the citations are made with such fullness, vividness, and particularity of reference, that it is hard to believe that he did not have before him extensive extra-canonical documents. This is the impression he clearly seeks to convey. Torrey (AJSL, XXV, 195) considers that he cit, es this array of authority purely "out of his head," for impressiveness’ sake, a theory which leaves the Chronicler no historical value whatever. It is extremely likely that he had before him also oral and written sources that he has not cited, records, private or public lists, pedigrees, etc., freely using them for his later lists and descents. For the post-exilic names and lists, Ezra-Nehemiah also furnish us much material. In this article no attempt is made at an exhaustive treatment, the aim being rather by a number of characteristic examples to give an idea of the quality, methods and problems of the Bible genealogies.
8. Principal Genealogies and Lists:
In the early genealogies the particular strata to which each has been assigned by reconstructive critics is here indicated by J, the Priestly Code (P), etc. The signs "=" or ":" following individual names indicate sonship.
(1) Genesis 4:16-24.--The Cainites (Assigned to P).
Seven generations to Jabal, Jubal and Tubal-cain, explaining the hereditary origin of certain occupations (supposed by many to be a shorter version of chapter 5).
(2) Genesis 4:25,26.--The Sethites (Assigned to J).
(3) Genesis 5:1-32.--The Book of the Generations of Adam (Assigned to the Priestly Code (P), Except 5:29 J).
Brings the genealogy down to Noah, and gives the chronology to the Flood. The numbers in the Hebrew Massoretic Text, the Samaritan Hebrew, and the Septuagint differ, Massoretic Text aggregating 1,656 years, Samaritan 1,307 years, and Septuagint 2,242 years. Some scholars hold this list to be framed upon that of the ten Babylonian kings given in Berosus, ending with Xisuthrus, the Babylonian Noah. An original primitive tradition, from which both lists are derived, the Hebrew being the nearer, is not impossible. Both the "Cainite" list in
(4) Genesis 10:1-32.--The Generations of the Sons of Noah.
I. Japheth = Gomer, Magog, Badai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, Tiras.
1. Gomer = Ashkenaz, Riphath (
2. Javan = Elisha, Tarshish, Kittim, Dodanim (Rodanim,
II. Ham = Cush, Mizraim, Put, Canaan.
1. Cush = Seba, Havilah, Sibtah, Raamah, Sabteca (Nimrod).
2. Mizraim = Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim (whence the Philis), Caphtorim.
3. Canaan = Zidon (Chronicles, Sidon), Heth; the Jebusite, Amorite, Girgashite, Hivite, Arkite, Sinite, Arvadite, Zemarite, Hittite.
4. Raamah (son of Cush ) = Sheba, Dedan.
III. Elam = Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, Aramaic
1. Aram = Uz, Hul, Gether, Mash (Chronicles, Meshech).
2. Arpachshad = Shelah = Eber = Peleg, Joktan.
3. Joktan (son of Eber) = Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, Obal, Abimael, Sheba, Ophir, Havilah, Jobab.
4. Peleg (son of Eber) = Reu = Serug = Nahor = Terah = Abraham.
Nearly all these names are of peoples, cities or districts. That Noah, Shem, Ham, Japheth, Nahor, Terah, Abraham, Nimrod, and probably Peleg, Reu, Serug, represent actual persons the general tenor of the narrative and the general teaching of Scripture clearly indicate, although many critics consider these also as purely eponymous. The others can mostly be more or less clearly identified ethnographically or geographically. This table represents the nations known to the writer, and in general, although not in all particulars, expresses the ethnographical relationships as far as they are now known to modern research. It follows a partly ethnological, partly geographical scheme, the descendants of Japheth in general representing the Aryan stock settled in Asia Minor, Media, Armenia, Greece, and the islands of the Mediterranean; those of Ham representing the Hamitic races in Ethiopia, Egypt, in Southwest Arabia, and Southern Babylonia. Many modern writers hold that in making "Nimrod" the son of "Cush," the Scripture writer has confused "Cush," the son of Ham, with another "Gush," the Cassei, living near Elam, since the later Babylonians and Assyrians were clearly Semitic in language and racial characteristics. Nevertheless the Scripture statement is accordant with early traditions of a Hamitic settlement of the country (Oannes the fish-god coming out of the Red Sea, etc.), and perhaps also with the fact that the earliest language of Babylonia was non-Sem. The sons of Canaan represent the nations and peoples found by the Hebrews in Palestine, the Phoenicians and the Canaanites. Heth is the great Hittite nation, by language and racial type strikingly non-Sem. Among the sons of Shem, Eber is by many considered eponymous or imaginary, but the hypothesis is not necessary. Most Assyriologists deny the connection of Elam with Shem, the later Elamites being non-Sem; the inscriptions, however, show that the earlier inhabitants up to 2300 BC were Semitic Lud must be the Lydians of Asia Minor, whose manners and older names resemble the Semitic Asia Minor presents a mixture of races as manifold as does Palestine. The sons of Joktan are tribes in Western and Southern Arabia. Havilah is given both as a son of Cush, Hamite, and of Joktan, Semite, perhaps because the district was occupied by a mixed race. It would seem, however, that "begat" or "son of" often represents geographical as well as ethnological relations. And where the classification of the Scripture writer does not accord with the present deliverances of archaeology, it must be remembered that at this distance conclusions drawn from ethnology, philology and archaeology, considering the present incomplete state of these sciences, the kaleidoscopic shifting of races, dynasties and tongues through long periods, and our scanty information, are liable to so many sources of error that dogmatism is precarious. The ancient world possessed a much larger amount of international knowledge than was, until recently, supposed. A writer of 300 BC had a closer range and could have had sources of information much more complete than we possess. On the assumption of the Mosaic authorship, that broad, statesmanlike mind, learned in all the knowledge of the Egyptians, and, clearly, profoundly influenced by Babylonian law and literature, may be credited with considerable breadth of vision and many sources of information. Aside from the question of inspiration, this Table of Nations; for breadth of scope, for inclusiveness (though not touching peoples outside of the life of its writer), for genial broadmindedness, is one of the most remarkable documents in any literature.
(5) Genesis 11:10-27.--The Generations of Shem (assigned to P).
From Shem to Abraham. The list is also chronological, but the versions differ, Massoretic Text making 290 years, from Shem to Abraham, Samaritan Hebrew, 940, and Septuagint 1,070. Septuagint inserts Cainan, 130 years, otherwise agreeing with the Samaritan to the birth of Abraham. Arpachshad may be rendered "the territory of Chesed," i.e. of the Chasdim, Chaldeans. Eber therefore is descended from Arpachshad, Abraham, his descendant, coming from Ur-Chasdim.
(6) Genesis 11:23-26; 22:20-24.--The Children of Nahor (11:23-26 P; 22:20-24 J).
Uz, Buz, Kemuel, etc. These descendants of Abraham’s brother probably represent Aramean tribes chiefly East or Northeast of Canaan. Aram may be the ancestor of the Syrians of Damascus. Uz and Buz probably belong to Arabia Petrea, mentioned in
(7) Genesis 16:15; 21:1-3; 25 (also
The descendants of Abraham through Hagar and Ishmael represent the Ishmaelite tribes of Arabia living North and Northwest of the Joktanidae, who chiefly peopled Arabia. Twelve princes are named, possibly all sons of Ishmael, perhaps some of them grandsons. The number has seemed "suspicious" as balancing too exactly the twelve tribes of Israel. But twelve is an approved Semitic number, determining not necessarily the sons born, but the "sons" mentioned. The Arabians generally were frequently given the name Ishmaelites, perhaps because of the greater prominence and closer contact of these northern tribes with the Hebrews. The sons of Keturah seem to have been chiefly Arabian tribes, whose locations are unknown. Midian, of the sons of Keturah, is the well-known and powerful tribe in the Arabian desert near the Aelanitic Gulf, bordered by Edom on the Northwest Sheba and Dedan are also mentioned as Cushites (
(8) Genesis 29:31-30:24; 35:16-26. The Children of Jacob (29:31-35 Assigned to P; 30:1-3a JE; 30:4a P; 30:4b-24 JE; 35:16-22 JE; 35:23-26 P).
The account of the parentage, birth and naming of the founders of the twelve tribes; by Leah: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun (daughter Dinah); by Bilhah: Dan, Naphtali; by Zilpah: Gad, Asher; by Rachel: Joseph, Benjamin. Much modern criticism agrees that these names are purely those of tribes, some of them perhaps derived from persons or places impossible now to trace, but mostly eponymous. Accordingly, these chapters are to be translated as follows. An Arab tribe, Jacob, wanders in Canaan, quarrels with Edom, migrates to Haran, forms alliances with the Aramean clans Rachel, Bilhah, Leah, Zilpah. Rachel and Jacob constitute a new tribe, Joseph. The federation takes the name Jacob. The other allied clans divide into sub-clans, or new clans join them, until Leah has six "sons," Reuben, Simeon, etc.; Zilpah, two; Bilhah, two. Zilpah and Bilhah are "concubines" because inferior members of the federation, or else have a left-handed connection with it. The formation of the new tribe Benjamin broke up the old tribe Rachel, which (who) accordingly "died." Although such are the original facts imbedded in the documents, they are now set in a framework of personal narrative, and were understood as narrative by the first hearers and readers. The history thus constituted is necessarily "an enigma which it is very hard to solve" (Bennett, Genesis, 284), and with almost as many answers as students. For critical purposes it presents a rich field for exploration, analysis and conjecture, but its edificatory value is chiefly found in reading the narratives as personal: a serious and reverent religious romance rounded on facts or legends, whose real value lies in the sidelights it throws on national character and ethical principles, expressed in a naive, vivid, lifelike story, full of suggestion and teaching. This present article, however, proceeds on the Scripture representation of these details and incidents as personal.
The explanations of the names illustrate the Hebrew fondness for assonances, paronomasia, coming from a time when much importance was attached to words and sounds, but need not be considered mere popular etymologies, the Hebrew individual mother being fully capable of them. Neither do they necessarily represent the original etymology, or reason for the name, but may give the pregnant suggestion occurring to the maternal or other imagination.
Leah, "wild cow," is supposed by many to be so called from the "totem" of the "Leah" tribe. Reuben (re’ubhen), original meaning unknown, unless Leah’s emotional explanation explains the name, rather than is explained by it: ra’ah be`onyi, "hath looked upon my affliction." Superficially it might be re’u ben, "See, a son," as in the American
(9) Genesis 36. The Generations of Esau (P).
I. The Descent of the Edomite Chiefs and Clans from Esau through His Three Wives, the Hittite or Canaanite Adah, the Ishmaelite Basemath, and the Horite Oholibamah (Genesis 36:1-19).
The wives’ names here differ from the other statements: In
1. Judith, daughter of Beeri the Hittite.
2. Bashemath, daughter of Elan, the Hittite.
3. Mahalath, daughter of Ishmael, sister of Nebaioth.
1. Oholibamah, daughter of Anah, daughter of Zibeon, the Hivite.
2. Adah, daughter of Elon the Hittite.
3. Bashemath, daughter of Ishmael, sister of Nebaioth.
It is not necessary to resort to the hypothesis of different traditions. Bashemath and Adah are clearly identical, Esau perhaps having changed the name; as are Mahalath and the Ishmaelite Basemath, a transcriber’s error being probably responsible for the change. As to Judith and Oholibamah, Anah is probably a man, identical with Beeri (
II. The Aboriginal Leaders or Clans in Edom, Partly Subdued by, Partly Allied with, the Esauites (Genesis 36:20-30).
These are descendants of "Seir the Horite" in seven branches, and in sub-clans. "Seir" looks like an eponym or a personification of the country, as no personal details have been preserved. Among these names are no "El" (’el) or "Jah" (yah) compounds, although they are clearly cognate with the Hebrew. Several close similarities to names in Judah are found, especially the Hezronite. Many animal names, "Aiah," "bird of prey," "Aran," "wild goat," etc.
III. Eight Edomite "Kings" before the Hebrew Monarchy (Genesis 36:31-39).
One ’el compound, "Mehitabel," one ba’al compound. It is to be noted that the "crown" was not hereditary and that the "capital" shifted; the office was elective, or fell into the hands of the local chief who could win it.
IV. A List of Esauite Clan Chiefs; "Dukes" (English Revised), "Chiefs" (American Standard Revised Version); "Sheiks" (Genesis 36:40-43).
Apparently arranged territorially rather than tribally. The names seem used here as either clans or places and should perhaps be read: "the chief of Teman," etc. The original ancestor may have given his name to the clan or district, or obtained it from the district or town.
In general this genealogy of Esau shows the same symmetry and balance which rouses suspicion in some minds: excluding Amalek, the son of the concubine, the tribes number twelve. Amalek and his descendants clearly separated from the other Edomites early and are found historically about Kadesh-barnea, and later roaming from the border of Egypt to North Central Arabia.
(10) Genesis 46:8-27.
(In different form,
A Characteristic Genealogy.
It includes the ideal number of 70 persons, obtained by adding to the 66 mentioned in
2. Leah’s descendants.
A. Reuben = Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, Carmi.
B. Simeon = Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, Shaul.
C. Leui = Gershon, Kohath, Merari.
D. Judah = Er, Onan, Shelah, Perez, Zerah; Perez, Hezron, Hamul.
E. Issachar = Tolah, Puvah, Iob, Shimron.
F. Zebulun = Sered, Elon, Jahleel.
G. Dinah, daughter.
3. Zilpah’s descendants, 16.
A. Gad = Ziphion, Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arodi, Areli.
B. Asher = Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, Beriah, Serah (daughter); Beriah = Heber, Malchiel.
4. Rachel’s descendants, 14.
A. Joseph = Manasseh, Ephraim.
B. Benjamin = Bela, Becher, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, Ehi, Rash, Muppim, Huppin, Ard.
5. Bilhah’ s descendants, 7.
A. Da = Hushim.
B. Naphtali = Jahzeel, Guni, Jezer, Shillem.
The list differs in many respects from those in Numbers and Chronicles, and presents some chronological and other problems. Without entering upon an exhaustive study, a number of names may be touched on.
Carmi, (2A), like the other names in i, might be a gentilic, "the Carmite," like "the Amorite," etc., especially if these names are those of clans, as they are in Numbers, instead of persons, as the Genesis narrative states. A town, "Bethhaccherem," is mentioned in
Hezron (2A). Another Hezron is given as a descendant of Judah. This duplication of names is possible in clans; see instances below, but more likely in persons.
Jemuel (2B). Nemuel in
Jamin (or Jachin) (2B) is Jarib in Chronicles.
Ohad (2B). Not in Numbers or Chronicles.
Zohar (2B) is Zerah in Numbers and Chronicles.
Gershon (2C). In
Hezron and Hamul (2D) rouse chronological or exegetical difficulties. Pharez (
Puvah (2E). Puah in
Iob (2E) is Jashub (Numbers, Chronicles), the latter probably correct. Septuagint has it here. A copyist, no doubt, omitted the "shin," "sh."
Dinah (2G) is thought by some to be a later insertion, on account of the "awkward Hebrew," "with Dinah." Dinah and Serah as unmarried, and no doubt because of other distinguishing facts, now unknown, are the only women descendants mentioned; married women would not be. On the clan theory of the names, the "Dinah" clan must have disappeared in Egypt, not being found in Number.
Ziphion (3A). Zephon in Numbers, perhaps giving its name to the Gadite city of Zaphon (
Ezbon (3A). Ozni (
Arodi (3A). In
Ishvah (3B). Omitted in Numbers; perhaps died childless, or his descendants did not constitute a tribal family.
Beriah (3B). Also an Ephraimite (
Serah (3B), serach, "abundance," not the same name as that of Abraham’s wife, sarah, "princess."
Heber (3B), chebher; in
The Sons of Benjamin.
The three lists, Genesis, Numbers, Chronicles, represent marked divergences, illustrating the corruption of perhaps all three texts. This list illustrates the genealogical method of counting all descendants as sons, though of different generations. It gives Benjamin ten "sons."
Naaman (4B) perhaps appears, by a transcriber’s error in
Gera (4B) in similar fashion may appear in
Ehi (4B) is Ahiram (
Rosh (4B) is not in Numbers or Chronicles. He rounded no family.
Muppim (4B) troubled the scribes greatly. In
Huppim (4B) in
Ard (4B) in
Hushim (5A), the same in
Jahzeel (5B) is Jahziel in
Guni (5B) in
Shillem (5B), in
(11) Exodus 6:14-25 (Assigned to P).--Partial List of Heads of Fathers’ Houses of Reuben, Simeon and Levi.
Reuben and Simeon are as in Genesis. Levi follows:
1. Gershon = Libni, Shimei.
A. Amram married Jochebed = Aaron, Moses; Aaron married Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab, sister of Nahshon = Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, Ithamar; Eleazar married daughter of Putiel = Phinehas.
B. Izhar = Korah, Nepheg, Zichri; Korah, Assir, Elkanah, Abiasaph.
D. Uzziel = Mishael, Elzaphan, Sithri.
3. Merari = Mahli, Mushi.
The interest of the list is partly chronological, but chiefly to illustrate the genealogical place of Aaron and Moses. It probably exhibits the genealogical practice of omitting links, Amaram the father of Moses apparently being several links from Amram the son of Kohath. By Moses’ time the Amramites numbered some 2,000 males (
(12) Numbers 1:5-54; 2:3-29; 7:12 ff; 10:4 ff.--The Heads of Houses Representing and Leading the Tribes (Assigned to P).
I. Reuben: Elizur, Son of Shedeur.
II. Simeon: Shelumiel, Son of Zurishaddai.
Shelumiel found in Judith.
III. Judah: Nahshon, Son of Amminadab.
Both found also in
IV. Issachar: Nethanel, Son of Zuar.
Nethanel, name of nine persons in Chronicles, Nehemiah, Ezra, same as Nathaniel.
V. Zebulun: Eliab, Son of Helon.
VI. Joseph: Ephraim: Elishama, Son of Ammihud.
VII. Joseph: Manasseh: Gamaliel, Son of Pedahzur. New Testament Gamaliel.
VIII. Benjamin: Abidan, Son of Gideoni.
IX. Dan: Ahiezer, Son of Ammishaddai.
X. Asher: Pagiel, Son of Ochran.
XI. Gad: Eliasaph, Son of Deuel.
XII. Naphtali: Ahira, Son of Enan.
Seven of these names, Amminadab, Ammihud, Abidan, Ahirah, Ahiezer, Eliab, Elishama, are concededly early. The 5 compounded in Shaddai or Zur are said to be of a type found only in P; 9 of the 24 are compounded in ’el, said to be a characteristic of late names. The ’El is postfixed more times, 5, than it is prefixed, 4; also a characteristic of late names. The proportion of compound names is also greater than in the older names; for these and similar reasons (Gray, ICC, "Nu," 6; HPN, 191-211; The Expositor T, September, 1897, 173-90) it is concluded that though several of the names are, and more may be, early, the list is late. But see Ancient Hebrew Tradition, 74, 83 ff, 85 ff, 320. The contention rests largely on the late date of the Priestly Code (P) and of Chronicles. But while fashions in names changed in Hebrew life as elsewhere, in view of the persistence of things oriental, the dating of any particular names is somewhat precarious. They may be anticipations or late survivals of classes of names principally prevalent at the later or earlier date. Two of the names, otherwise unknown, have come to us through Ruth, and indicate a source now unknown to us, from which all the names could have been drawn. The fondness for names in ’el very likely indicates not a late date but an early one. ’El is the Divine name appearing in personal names previous to Moses, succeeded by Jab from Moses and Joshua on. The recurrence of ’el in the time of Ezra and later probably indicates the renewed interest in antiquity as well as the at once wider and narrower outlook brought about by the exile and return. Numerous South Arabian compounds both with the "ilu," "ili" (’el), affixed and prefixed, occur in monuments about 1000 BC (AHT, 81 ff).
(13) Numbers 3:1-37.--The Family of Aaron, with the "Princes" of Levi.
Adds nothing to list in
I. Gershonites: Eliasaph, Son of Lael.
Also a Benjaminite Eliasaph (
II. Kohathites: Elizaphan, Son of Uzziel.
A Zebulunite Elizaphan (
III. Merarites: Zuriel, Son of Abihail.
A Gadire Abihail (
(14) Numbers 13:4-16.--Spies (P).
I. Reuben: Shammua, Son of Jaccur.
Other Shammuas (
II. Simeon: Shaphat, Son of Hori.
Four other Shaphats, one Gadite, one Judahite; Elisha’s father. Hori looks like the national name of the Horites; perhaps Hori or an ancestor had been adopted, through marriage or otherwise.
III. Judah: Caleb, Son of Jephunneh, the Kenizzite (Numbers 32:12; Joshua 14:6,14).
Another Caleb, Chelubai, son of Hezron, brother of Jerahmeel (
IV. Issachar: Igal, Son of Joseph.
V. Ephraim: Hoshea, Son of Nun;
Hoshea, Joshua’s early name. Others:
VI. Benjamin: Palti, Son of Raphu. See 16 IV.
VII. Zebulun: Gaddiel, Son of Sodi.
VIII. Joseph-Manasseh: Gaddi, Son of Susi.
A Gaddi is in 1 Macc 2:2.
IX. Dan: Ammiel, Son of Gemali.
Another Ammiel (
X. Asher: Sethur, Son of Michael.
Nine other Michaels, Gadite, Levite, Issacharite, Benjamite, Manassite, Judahite.
XI. Naphtali: Nahbi, Son of Vophsi.
XII. Gad: Geuel, Son of Machi.
Four names in ’el. Nine ending with i; unusual number. The antiquity of the list cannot be readily questioned.
(15) Numbers 26:5-62 (P).--The Heads of Houses at the Second Census.
1. Eliab, son of Pallu (also
2. Dathan, Abiram, Nemuel, sons of Eliab.
1. Machir; also
2. Gilead, son of Machir.
3. Iezer (abbreviation for Abiezer), Helek (not in Chronicles), Asriel, Shechem, Shemida, sons of Gilead.
4. Zelophehad, son of Hepher.
5. Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, Tirzah, daughters of Zelophehad.
1. Shuthelah; also
3. Tahan (Tahath,
4. Eran (Elead,
The names of Manasseh’s grandsons and great-grandsons are puzzling. Gilead is the district except in
The daughters of Zelophehad are noted for the interesting case at law they presented, claiming and receiving the inheritance of their father, which by Gray, ICC, "Nu," is considered not historical but a fictitious instance, for the purpose of raising the question, these daughters being clans, and not persons.
Among the sons of Ephraim, Becher has perhaps been misplaced from verse 38, and possibly displaces Bered (
(16) Numbers 34:16-28.--Tribal Representatives in the Allotment.
Reuben, Gad, half-Manasseh, omitted because their allotments had already been assigned East of Jordan; Levi, because receiving none. Changing to the order in (10):
I. Reuben: None.
II. Simeon: Shemuel, Son of Ammihud.
Shemuel is Hebrew of Samuel. Another Shemuel is of Issachar,
III. Judah: Caleb, Son of Jephunneh.
IV. Issachar: Paltiel, Son of Azzan.
Another Paltiel, otherwise Palti, David’s wife Michal’s temporary husband (
V. Zebulun: Elizaphan, Son of Parnach.
Another Elizaphan, Kohathite Levite (
VI. Gad: None.
VII. Asher: Ahihud, Son of Shelomi.
Another Ahihud, Benjamite (
VIII. Joseph-Ephraim: Kemuel, Son of Shiftan.
Another Kemuel, son of Nahor, an Aramean chief (
IX. Joseph-Manasseh: Hanniel, Son of Ephod.
Hanniel, also an Asherite (
X. Benjamin: Elidad, Son of Chislon.
XI. Dan: Bukki, Son of Jogli.
Bukki, abbreviation of Bukkiah; another, in high-priestly line of Phinehas (
XII. Naphtali: Pedahel, Son of Ammihud.
A Simeonite Ammihud above.
Seven "El" names, only one "Jah."
Contained unchanged in
I. Born in Hebron: Amnon, Chileab, Absalom, Adonijah, Shephatiah, Ithream.
II. Born in Jerusalem: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon, Ibhar, Elishua, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada, Eliphelet.
Four names in ’el, all prefixed. Two in "Jah." Chileab is Daniel in
(19) 2 Samuel 23 (also 1 Chronicals 11:11-41).--David’s Knights.
1. Josheb-bashebeth, the Tahchemonite.
In Chronicles it is Jashobeam, and should read Ishbaal, the writer’s religious horror of Baal leading him to substitute the consonants of bosheth, "shame," as in Mephibosheth, Ishbosheth. Septuagint has Iesebada (Codex Vaticanus), Iessebadal, Isbaam (Codex Alexandrinus), in Chronicles, and Iebosthe (Codex Vaticanus), Iebosthai (Codex Alexandrinus) here. In Chronicles he is a Hachmonite, probably correct. "Adino the Heznite" is probably a corruption for "He wielded his spear" (Chronicles).
2. Eleazar, Son of Dodai, the Ahohite.
Dodo in Chronicles; 8 other Eleazars in the Old Testament. Another Dodo is father of Elhanan.
3. Shammah, Son of Agee, a Hararite.
Omitted by Chronicles. Three other Shammahs, one of them a knight of David. "Harari" may be "mountaineer," or "inhabitant of the village Harar."
4. Abishai, Son of Zeruiah, Brother of Joab.
5. Benaiah, Son of Jehoaida of Kabzeel.
Eleven other Old Testament Benaiahs, one of them also a knight. This Benaiah succeeded Joab as commander-in-chief, 4 other Jehoiadas, one Benaiah’s grandson, high in David’s counsel, unless a scribe has inverted the order in
6. Asahel, Brother of Joab.
Three other Asahels.
7. Elhanan, Son of Dodo of Bethlehem.
Another Elhanan, slayer of the brother of Goliath (
8. Shammah the Harodite.
Chronicals, Shammoth. From Harod, near Gideon’s well (
9. Elika the Harodite.
10. Helez the Paltite.
Paltite perhaps local or family name from Pelet, or Palti.
11. Ira, Son of Ikkesh the Tekoite.
Two others, one a knight. Tekoah, Judaite town, home of Amos, etc.
12. Abiezer the Anathothite.
One other, a Manassite (
13. Mebunnai the Hushathite.
Should read, with Chronicles, Sibbecai.
14. Zalmon the Ahohite.
Zalmon, also name of mountain (
15. Maharai the Netophathite.
From Netophah, town.
16. Heleb, Son of Baanah.
17. Ittai, Son of Ribai of Gibeah of the Children of Benjamin.
18. Benaiah a Pirathonite.
Pirathon, Amalekite town in Ephraimite territory.
19. Hiddai of the Brooks of Gnash.
Chronicles, Hurai ("d" for "r"). Ga’ash, a Wady in Ephraim.
20. Abi-albon the Arbathite.
Chronicles, Abiel, perhaps corrupted from Abi-Baal; from Beth-arabah, Judah or Benjamin.
21. Azmaveth the Barhumite.
Three others, and a Judaite town, of the same name. Baharumite; Chronicles, Barhumite, a Benjamite town.
22. Eliahba the Shaalbonite.
Shaalbon, a Danite town.
23. The Sons of Jashen (better, Hashem).
Chronicles, "the sons of Hashem the Gizonite." "Sons of" looks like a scribal error, or interpolation, perhaps a repetition of "bni" in "Shaalboni" above.
24. Jonathan, Son of Shammah the Hararite.
Chronicles adds, "the son of Shagee the Hararite." Shagee should perhaps be Agee (
25. Ahiam, Son of Sharar the Ararite.
Chronicles, Sacar the Hararite. Sacar is supported by Septuagint.
26. Eliphelet, Son of Ahasvai, the Son of the Maacathite.
Chronicles has "Eliphal, son of Ur," and adds "Hepher the Mecherathite." Both texts are corrupt. Chronicles should perhaps read, "Eliphelet the son of ...., the Maacathite, Eliam," etc.
27. Eliham, Son of Ahithophel the Gilonite.
Eliham, possibly father of Bathsheba. Ahithophel, David’s counselor. Gilonite, native of Giloh.
27a. Ahijah the Pelonite (in Chronicals but Not Samuel).
Seven other Ahijahs. Pelonite uncertain, probably a corruption; perhaps inserted by a scribe who could not decipher his "copy," and means "such and such a one," as in
28. Hezro (Hezrai) the Carmelite.
A scribe confused the Hebrew letters, waw ("w") and yod ("y"). Carmel, near Hebron.
29. Paarai the Arbite.
Chronicles, "Naarai, son of Esbai." Uncertain. Arb, a town of Judah.
30. Igal, Son of Nathan of Zobah.
Chronicles, Joel, brother of Nathan. Igal less common than Joel, hence, more likely to be corrupted; 2 other Igals; 12 other Joels; 5 other Nathans.
30a. Mibhar, Son of Hagri (Chronicles, not Samuel).
Text uncertain as between this and 31.
31. Bani the Gadite (Omitted in Chronicles).
Possibly the Gerarite.
32. Zelek the Ammonite.
Ammon East of Jordan and upper Jabbok.
33. Naharai the Beerothite, Armor-bearer to Joab, Son of Zeruiah.
Beeroth, Benjamite town.
34. Ira the Ithrite.
Ithrites, a family of Kiriath-jearim, Judah.
35. Gareb the Ithrite.
Gareb also a hill West of Jerusalem.
36. Uriah the Hittite.
Bathsheba’s husband; 3 others. From some Hittite town surrounded by Israel at the Conquest.
37. Zabad, Son of Ahlai (Perhaps Dropped out of Samuel), Chronicles.
Chronicles adds 13 others. The filling of vacancies makes the number 37 instead of 30. Two names, perhaps, in ba’al, 5 in yah, 7 in ’el. As far as guessable, 5 from Judah, 3 from Benjamin, 2 from Ephraim, 1 from Dan, 1 from Issachar, 1 Ammonite, 1 Hittite, 2 (or 4) Hararites, 2 Harodites, 2 Ithrites.
(20) 1 Kings 4:1-19.--Solomon’s "Princes" and Commissaries.
Eleven princes, 12 officers. No mention of their tribal connections; assigned only partly by tribal bounds. 7 yah names, 1 ’el; 5 of the officers are prefixed ben as if their own names had dropped out.
(21) 1 Chronicals 1-9.--Genealogies, with Geographical and Historical Notices.
By far the largest body of genealogical material, illustrating most fully the problems and difficulties. The estimate of its value depends on the estimate of the Chronicler’s date, purpose, equipment, ethical and mental qualities. He uses freely all previous Old Testament matter, and must have had in hand family or tribal songs, traditions; genealogical registers, as mentioned in
I. Primeval Genealogies (1 Chronicals 1:1-54).
To show Israel’s place among the nations; follows Genesis closely, omitting only the Cainites; boldly, skillfully compressed, as if the omitted facts were well known.
(1) The ten antediluvian Patriarchs, and Noah’s three sons (
(2) Japheth’s descendants (
(3) The Hamites (
(4) The Semites (
(5) Abram’s descent (
(6) The sons of Abraham, Keturah, Isaac (
(7) Sons of Esau (
(8) Kings and sheikhs of Edom (
II. Descendants of Jacob (1 Chronicals 2-9).
The tribes arranged chiefly geographically. Judah, as the royal line, is given 100 verses, Levi, as the priestly, 81 verses, Benjamin 50, the other ten 56, Da and Zebulun neglected. His purpose practically confines him to the first three; and these were also the best preserved.
(1) Sons of Israel.
Follows substantially the order in
(2) Genealogies of Judah (
(a) Descent of Jesse’s sons from Judah (
Largely gleaned from the historical books. The sons of Zerah (
(b) Genealogy of Bezalel (
The artificer of the tabernacle, hence, greatly interests the Chronicler.
(c) Other descendants of Hezron (
(d) The Jerahmeelites (
Concededly a very old list of this important clan not found elsewhere. Sheshan (
(e) The Calebites (
Not elsewhere. The names are largely geographical. A subdivision of the Hezronites. Not Caleb the son of Jephunneh.
(f) David’s descendants (
Gives first the sons and their birthplaces, then the kings to Jeconiah and Zedekiah, then the Davidic line from Jeconiah to Zerubbabel, then the grandsons of Zerubbabel and the descendants of Shecaniah. Two other lists of David’s sons (
1 Chronicles 3:19-24, beginning with Zerubbabel’s descendants, are obscure, and a battleground of criticism on account of their bearing on the date of Chronicles. There are three possible interpretations:
(1) Following the Hebrew, Zerubbabel’s descendants stop with Pelatiah and Jeshaiah, his grandsons. Then follow three unclassified sets of "sons." No connection is shown between Jeshaiah and these. Then follows Shecaniah’s line with four generations. There are several other instances of unrelated names thus being thrown in. This gives two generations after Zerubbabel.
(2) Still following the Hebrew, assume that Shecaniah after Obadiah is in Zerubbabel’s line. This gives six generations after Zerubbabel.
(3) Following Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate (Jerome’s Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) (but the two latter are of very small critical weight), read in verse 21, "Rephaiah his son, Arnan his son," etc.--a very possible change: eleven generations after Zerubbabel.
According to (3), Ch was written at least 253 years (allowing 23 years to a generation; more probable than 30 or 40) after Zerubbabel (515), hence, after 262 BC; (2) makes it after 373; (1) makes it 459, during Ezra’s life. The book’s last recorded event is Cyrus’ decree (538), which indicates the earliest date. The New Testament casts no light here, none of these names appearing in the genealogies in Matthew or Luke. If Septuagint is correct, Keil suggests that it is a later insertion, a critical device too frequently used to nullify inconvenient facts. The passage itself justifies the statement that "there is no shadow of proof that the families enumerated in
(g) Fragmentary genealogies of families of Judah (
(1) "sons" of Judah, four or five successive generations;
(2) sons of Shobal and Hur;
(3) sons of Chelub;
(4) sons of Caleb, son of Jephunneh;
(5) sons of Jehaleel;
(6) sons of Ezra (of course, not the priest-scribe of the return);
(7) sons of "Bethiah the daughter of Pharaoh whom Mered took";
(8) sons of Shimon;
(9) sons of Ishi;
(10) sons of Shelah.
It is hard to trace the law of association here; which fact has its bearing on the discussion under (f) above. Chelub may be another Caleb.
(a) Simeon’s sons. Genealogy of Shimei. After
(b) Dwelling-places of Simeon. After
(c) Princes and conquests (
Source unknown, but considered old. Gray, however, thinks the names of late formation. Meshobab, Jamlech, Joshah, Amaziah, Joel, Jehu, Josibiah, Seraiah, Asiel, Elioenai, Jaakobah, Jeshohaiah, Asaiah, Adiel, Jesimiel, Benaiah, Ziza, Shiphi, Allon, Jedaiah, Shimri, Shemaiah, Ishi, Pelatiah, Neariah, Rephaiah, Uzziel; many undoubtedly old ones; 11 in yah, 5 in ’el. Eliothal sounds post-exilic. The section mentions several exploits of Simeon.
(4) East-Jordanic tribes (
As in Simeon above, the usual order, deviated from in instances, is
(1) Introductory: Sons and immediate descendants;
(3) Princes or Chiefs;
(a) Reuben (
Partly follows Gen, Nu; but only as to first generation. Very fragmentary and connections obscure.
(b) Gad (
First generation omitted. Chronicler draws from genealogies "in the days of" Jotham and Jeroboam.
(c) Half-Manasseh (
The whole tribe is treated of (
(5) Levi (
Illustrates more fully the Chronicler’s attitude and methods.
(a) High priests from Levi to Jehozadak (the Exile) (
(i) Levi’s sons: Gershon, Kohath, Merari (
(ii) Kohath’s sons: Amram, Izhar, Hebron, Uzziel (
(iii) Amram’s "sons": Aaron, Moses, Miriam (
(iv) High priests from Eleazar. Also (partly) Ezra (7:1-5):
Noteworthy omissions: Eli’s house, Eli, Phinehas, Ahitub, Ahimelech, Abiathar, because set aside for Zadok’s in Solomon’s time; Bukki to Zadok being their contemporaries; but the list also omits Amariah in the reign of Jehoshaphat (perhaps), Jehoiada, Joash’s "power behind the throne," Urijah in Ahaz’ day, Azariah in Hezekiah’s. It has been thought that this was done in the interests of a chronological scheme of the Chronicler, making 23 generations of 40 years from the Exodus to the Captivity, or 920 years. The Hebrew generation, however, was as likely to be 30 as 40 years, and as a matter of fact was nearer 20. The apparent number of generations from Aaron to the Captivity, adding the data from the historical books, is 29, making a generation about 24 years. The reasons for the omission here, as for many others, are not apparent. Outside of Chronicles and Ezra we know nothing of Abishua, Bukki, Uzzi, Zerahiah, Meraioth, the first Amaziah, Johanan, Amariah, Ahitub, Zadok 2, Shallum, Azariah 3. The list touches historical notices in Aaron, Eleazar, Phinehas, Zadok, Ahimaaz, Azariah 2, contemporary of Solomon, perhaps Amariah, contemporary of Jehoshaphat, Azariah, contemporary of Uzziah, Hilkiah, contemporary of Joshua, Seraiah slain by the Chaldeans, and Jehozadak. The recurrence of similar names in close succession is characteristically Jewish (but compare names of popes and kings). It is seen in the list beginning with Jehozadak: Joshua, Joiakim, Eliashib, Joiada, Jonathan, Jaddua, Onias, Simon, Eleazar, Manasseh, Onias, Simon, Onias, Joshua. Also about Christ’s time: Eleazar, Jesus, Annas, Ismael, Eleazar, Simon, Joseph, Jonathan, Theophilus, Simon, although these latter do not succeed in a genealogical line.
(b) The three Levitical clans (
(c) Lineal descendants of Gershom: seven,
The two lists (
Jahath, Zimmah, Zerah are in both. By slight changes Joah, yow’ah, is Ethan, ’ethan; Iddo, `idow, is `idaiah, Adaiah; Jeatherai, y¦’thriy, is Ethni, ’ethniy. Shimei may have dropped from one and Libni from the other. Jahath and Shimei have been transposed. In
(d) Pedigrees of Samuel (1Ch 6:27,28; 33-35). See also
We have three pedigrees of Samuel, all suffering in transcription:
Ahimoth Mahath Elkanah Elkanah
Zophai Zuph Zuph
Nahath Thoah Thohu
Eliab Eliel Elihu
Jeroham Jeroham Jeroham
Elkanah Elkanah Elkanah
Samuel Samuel Samuel
Joe (Vashni) and Joe Joel
The text is obscure. Septuagint reads (
(e) Pedigree of Asaiah the Merarite (
Merari: Mahli: Libni; Shimei: Uzzah: Shimea: Haggiah: Asaiah. Hard to adjust or place. Libni and Shimei are elsewhere Gershonites, but the same name is frequently found in different tribes or clans. Information below Mahli is entirely wanting.
(f) Descent of David’s three singers, Heman, Asaph, Ethan (
(i) Heman has been given under (d) ; 20 links.
(ii) Asaph: Getshorn: Jahath: Shimei: Zimmah: Ethan: Adaiah: Zerah: Ethni (Jeatherai): Malchijah: Baaseiah: Michael: Shimea: Berechiah: Asaph; 15 links.
(iii) Ethan: Merari: Mushi: Mahli: Shemet: Bani: Amzi: Hilkiah: Amaziah: Hashabiah: Malluch: Abdi: Kishi: Ethan; 12 links.
Hardly anywhere is the Chronicler’s good faith more questioned than in these lists. Finding in his day the three guilds of singers claiming descent from David’s three, and through these from Levi, he fits them out with pedigrees, borrowing names from
(1) The Chronicler’s failure to give his three families nearly the same number of links is suspicious, but if he took an old list, as it came to him, it is natural.
(2) The fact that these added names occur many more times in Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah indicates simply that Levitical names occur frequently in a writer and among a people whose interests are Levitical. No one would look among the Roundheads for either classical or aristocratic names.
(3) In no tribe would such names be more likely to recur, naturally or purposely, than in the Levitical.
(4) The Chronicler has inserted among his new names 6 in yah and only 1 in ’el, and that far down the list.
(5) Of the "added" names Malchijah occurs in
(7) While these "added" names occur more times in Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, than elsewhere, and 5 of the 13 occur nowhere else, it is also true that more than 500 other names also occur only in these three books, and that the total names in these, to say nothing of the "P" portions elsewhere, outnumber the names in the other books about three to one. Other things being equal, three mentions of any common name ought to be found in these books to one in the others. Of all names applied to more than four persons the usual proportion in these books by count is four, to one elsewhere.
(g) Pedigree of Ahimaaz (
(h) Dwelling-places of Levi.
(6) The six remaining tribes.
(a) Issachar (
1 Chronicles 7:1 derived from
(b) Benjamin (
A very difficult section. It is considered a Zebulunite genealogy which has been Benjaminized, because
(1) there is a Benjamite list elsewhere;
(2) Benjamin is out of place here, while in 13 out of 17 tribal lists Zebulun comes at this point, and in this list has no other place; (3) the numbers of Benjamin’s sons differ from other Benjamite genealogies;
(4) the names of Bela’s and Becher’s sons are different here;
(5) many names are not Benjamite;
(6) Tarshish, in this list, is a sea-coast name appropriate to Zebulun, but not Benjamin. But (1) it is called Benjamite; (2) doublets are not unknown in Chronicles; (3) Da is also neglected; (4) many Benjamite names are found; (5) both the Zebulunite material and the Benjamite material elsewhere is too scanty for safe conclusions.
Aher (" another") is a copyist’s error or substitute for Dan.
(e) Manasseh, East and West (
The text of
(f) Ephraim to Joshua (
Contains an interesting personal note in the mourning of Ephraim over his sons Ezer and Elead, and the subsequent birth of Beriah. Interpreted to mean that the clans Ezer and Elead met with disaster, on which the clan Beriah became prominent.
(g) The seats of Joseph’s sons (
Hard to say why this has been placed here.
(h) Asher (
The earliest names derived from
(i) Benjamin (
(i) Sons of Benjamin. After
(ii) Descendants of Ehud (
(iii) The house of Saul (
In this passage two exceptions to the usual treatment of Baal compounds. Ishbaal and Meribbaal here are Ishbosheth and Mephibosheth in S.
(7) The inhabitants of Jerusalem (
With variations in
(a) The children of Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim, Manasseh.
Constituting "the laity," "Israel."
(b) The priests.
Agreeing with Nehemiah, but abridged.
(c) The Levites. Paralleling Nehemiah, but not exactly.
(d) Nethinim or porters. Fuller than Nehemiah, and different.
(8) The house of Saul (
(22) David’s Knights (1 Chronicals 11:10-47).
Discussed under (19). Adds to the list, Adina, son of Shiza, Reubenite; Hanan, son of Maacah, Joshaphat the Mithnite, Uzziah the Ashterathite, Shama and Jeiel the sons of Hotham the Aroerite, Jediael the son of Shimri, and Joah his brother, the Tizite, Eliel the Mahavite, and Jeribai and Joshaviah, the sons of Elnaam, and Ithmah the Moabite, Eliel, and Obed, and Jaasieh the Mezobaite.
(23) David’s Recruits at Ziklag (1 Chronicals 12-22).
Found only here. Contains 23 names from Benjamin (some may be Judahite); 11 from Gad; 8 from Manasseh; nothing to show that the names are not old.
(24) David’s Musicians and Porters at the Bringing of the Ark (1 Chronicals 15:16-24).
(25) David’s Organization of the Kingdom (1 Chronicals 23-27).
I. The Levites (1 Chronicals 23).
(1) The family of Gershon (
(2) The family of Kohath (
(3) The family of Merari (
II. The Priests (1 Chronicals 24).
24 divisions; 16 divided among descendants of Eleazar, headed by Zadok; 8 among those of Ithamar, headed by Ahimelech (perhaps an error for Abiathar); but perhaps Ahimelech’s. Abiathar, son of Ahimelech, was acting for his father.
(1) Eleazar’s courses: Jehoiarib, Harim, Malchijah, Hakkoz, Joshua, Eliashib, Huppah, Bilgah, Hezer, Aphses, Pethahiah, Jehezekel, Jachin, Gamul, Delaiah, Maaziah.
(2) Ithamar: Jedaiah, Seorim, Mijamin, Abijah, Shecaniah, Jachim, Joshebeab, Immer.
Josephus gives the same names of courses (Ant., VII, xiv, 7; Vita, 1). Several are mentioned in Apocrypha, Talmud, and the New Testament. Jehoiarib, Jedaiah, Harim, Malchijah, Mijarain, Abijah, Shecaniah, Bilgah, Maaziah, are found in one or both of Nehemiah’s lists.
(3) Supplementary list of Levites (
Repeats the Levitical families in
III. The Singers (1 Chronicals 25).
(1) Their families, classified under the three great groups, descendants of Asaph, Jeduthun (Ethan), Heman.
A curious problem is suggested by the fact that the names in verse 4, beginning with Hanani, with a few very slight changes, read: "Hanan (`Have mercy’) -iah (`O Yahweh’); Hanani (~`Have mercy’); Eli-athah (’Thou art my God’); Giddalti (`I have magnified’) (and) Romamti (`exalted’) (thy) Ezer (`help’); Josh-bekashah (`In the seat of hardness’); Mallothi (`I spake of it’); Hothir (`Gave still’); Mahazioth (`Visions’)." How, or why, this came among these names, cannot be said.
(2) The 24 courses of 12 singers each, of which courses numbers 1, 3, 5, 7 fell to Asaph; numbers 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 14 fell to Jeduthun; numbers 6, 9, 11, 13, 15-24 fell to Heman.
IV. Gatekeepers and Other Officers (1 Chronicals 26).
(1) Genealogies and stations of the gatekeepers (
(2) Those in charge of the temple treasury (
(3) Those in charge of the "outward business."
Subordinate magistrates, tax-collectors, etc.
V. The Army, and David’s Officers (1 Chronicals 27).
(1) The army (
12 officers, each commanding 24,000 men, and in charge for one month; chosen from David’s knights.
(2) The tribal princes (
After the fashion of
(3) The king’s twelve stewards (
(4) The king’s court officers (
Counselor and scribe: Jonathan, the king’s uncle, otherwise unknown; tutor: Jehiel; counselor: Ahithophel; "the king’s friend" (closest confidant?): Hushai. Possibly two priests are next included: Jehoiada the son of Benaiah, and Abiathar, high priest of the Ithamar branch. But perhaps it should read, "Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada." If two priests are intended, it seems strange that Zadok is not one. The list ends with the commander-in-chief, Joab.
This elaborate organization in every part and branch of the kingdom is looked upon as the Chronicler’s glowing Utopian dream of what must have been, underrating the organizing power of the great soldier and statesman.
(26) Ezra 2:1-63.--The Exiles Who Returned with Zerubbabel.
(1) The Leaders (Ezra 2:2).
(2) Numbers, according to Families (Ezra 2:3-19).
18 of Ezra’s numbers differ from Nehemiah’s.
(3) Numbers according to Localities (Ezra 2:20-35).
10 towns probably Judahite, 7 Benjamite.
(4) The Priests (Ezra 2:39,42).
Only 4 families, representing 3 Davidic courses.
(5) The Levites (Ezra 2:43,14).
Among the singers, only Asaphites.
(6) The Porters (Ezra 2:45).
3 old names, 3 new ones.
(7) The "Nethinim" (Temple-Slaves) (Ezra 2:46-56).
(8) The Children of(Slaves) (Ezra 2:57-59).
(9) Those Who Could Not Prove Their Descent.
(a) General population.
Three families, children of Delaiah, Tobiah, Nekoda.
(b) Priestly families.
Hobaiah, Hakkoz, Barzillai. Hakkoz, the seventh of the Davidic courses, perhaps succeeded later in establishing their right (
(27) Ezra 6:1-5.--Ezra’s Genealogy.
An ascending genealogy: Ezra, son of Seraiah, son of Azariah, son of Hilkiah, son of Shallum, son of Zadok, son of Ahitub, son of Amaraiah, son of Azariah, son of Meraioth, son of Zerahiah, son of Uzzi, son of Bukki, son of Abishua, son of Phinehas, son of Eleazar, son of Aaron; 16 links. Follows
(28) Ezra 8:1-20.--Numbers and Leaders of Those Who Returned with Zerubbabel.
Numbers much smaller than in Zerubbabel’s list (
(29) Ezra 10:18-44.--Jews Who Had Married Foreign Women.
(1) The Priests (Ezra 10:18-22).
Seventeen in all; members of the high priest’s family, and of the Davidic courses of Immer and Harim, besides the family of Pashhur.
(2) The Levites (Ezra 10:23); 6 in All.
(3) Singers and Porters (Ezra 10:24); 4 in All.
(4) "Israel," "the Laity" (Ezra 10:25-43).
Sixteen families represented; 86 persons. Out of a total of 163 names, 39 yah compounds, 19 ’el compounds, 8 prefixed.
(30) Nehemiah 3:1-12.--The Leaders in the Repair of the Wall.
Thirty-eight leaders; in 30 instances the father’s name also given. As far as mentioned, all from Judah and Jerusalem.
(31) Nehemiah 7:7-63.--Those Who Returned with Zerubbabel.
(32) Nehemiah 8:4-7.--Levites and Others Who Assisted Ezra in Proclaiming the Law.
(33) Nehemiah 10:1-27.--The Sealers of the Covenant.
Twenty-two priests, 17 Levites, 20 heads of families already mentioned, 24 individuals.
(34) Nehemiah 11:3-36.--Chief Dwellers in Jerusalem and Vicinity.
(35) Nehemiah 12:1-8.--Who Went Up with Zerubbabel.
Compare with priests’ lists in
(36) Nehemiah 12:10,11.--High Priests from Jeshua to Jaddua.
(1) Jeshua, 538 to 520 BC.
(3) Eliashib, 446 till after 433.
(4) Joiada, about 420.
(5) Jonathan, Johanan, 405 to 362.
(6) Jaddua, to 323.
This list bears upon the date of Ezra-Nehemiah. Jaddua was high priest when Alexander visited Jerusalem, 335 BC. If the Darius of verse 22 is Darius Nothus (425 to 405 BC), and Jaddua, a young boy, is mentioned as the heir to the high-priesthood, this passage was written before 400. If Jaddua’s actual high-priesthood is meant, and Darius Codomannus (336 to 330 BC) is the Darius here, the date may be about 330. The enumeration of families here is assigned to the time of Joiakim, before 405, and the latest recorded events to the time of the high priest before Jaddua (
(37) Nehemiah 12:12-21.--Heads of Priestly Families.
(38) Nehemiah 12:22-26.--Levites and Porters underJohanan.
(39) Nehemiah 12:31-42.--Princes and Priests at Dedication of the Wall.
(40) Matthew 1:1-17.--The.
(See separate article).
(41) Luke 3:23-38.--The.
(See separate article).
Commentaries in the place cited., especially on Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Chronicles, Ezra-Nehemiah, especially C. F. Keil, Bible Comm., 1872; E. Bertheau, in Kurzgef. exeget. Handb. zum Altes Testament, 1873; Bible ("Speaker’s") Commentary (Browne, Gen; Clark, Ex; Espin, Nu; Rawlinson, Chronicles, etc.); W. B. Barnes, Cambridge Bible, Chronicles; R. Kittel, Die Bucher der Chronicles; Driver, Westminster Comm., Gen; ICC (Gray, Nu; Moore, Jgs; Curtis, Chronicles, etc.); Pulpit Comm.; W. R. Harvey-Jellie, Ch in Century Bible; S. Oettli, Kgf. Kom., 1889; O. Zoeckler, Lange’s Comm., etc.
Encyclopedia arts., especially HDB, E. L. Curtis, "Genealogies"; SBD, A. C. Hervey, "Genealogies"; EB, S. A. Cook, "Genealogies"; EB, 11th edition, S. A. Cook, "Genealogies"; other encyclopedia arts., under specific books, tribes, names, genealogies.
General works: Gray, Studies in Hebrew; Hommel, The Ancient Hebrew Tradition; A.C. Hervey, The Genealogies of our Lord; Sprenger, Das Leben u. d. Lehre d. Mohammad; W.R. Smith, Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia; J. Wellhausen, De Gentibus et Familiis Judaeis; J. Wellhausen, Prolegomena, 1883 (ET), 177-277; McLennan, Studies in Ancient History.
Magazine articles: H.W. Hogg, "Genealogy of Benjamin," JQR, XI, 1899, 96-133, 329-44; M. Berlin, "Notes on Genealogies of Levi,
Philip Wendell Crannell