Gabriel Zwilling

didymus) (c.1487-1558. German Reformer. Born at Annaberg, he was an Augustinian monk and a colleague of Luther in the Wittenberg Reformation, together with Melanchthon* and Carlstadt.* During Luther's exile in the Wartburg (1521), Carlstadt and Zwilling gave a more radical turn to the Reformation, encouraged by the Zwickau Prophets* who joined forces with them. Zwilling was a fiery preacher and by October was denouncing the Mass and urging the abandonment of clerical vows. He gained a large following, especially in the Wittenberg Augustinian monastery, many monks renouncing their vows. Soon he was attacking images, and by December was leading in iconoclastic riot, encouraged by Carlstadt. The Wittenberg town council recalled Luther to restore order, which he did in March 1522. Luther recommended Zwilling to a pastorate in Zwickau; subsequently the patron dismissed him, despite protests from the people and Luther. In 1549 he spurned the Leipzig Interim of Duke Maurice, and suffered for it. He died in Torgau.