1793-1859. German biblical scholar. Born at Ahrensböck, Holstein, he studied in Berlin under W.M.L. de Wette,* Johann Neander,* and F.D.E. Schleiermacher* (1814-17), and was “Repetent” in theology under de Wette (1818-19). He was professor of theology at Bonn (1829-59), and was raised to the office of consistorial councillor (1843) and rector of the university. He worked wholly in biblical criticism and exegesis, and while he held advanced views on the OT he took a conservative position in NT studies, opposing the * and defending the traditional authorship of the fourth gospel. His magnum opus was a three-part commentary on Hebrews (1828-40).