Originally applied to papal decretals* not included in Gratian's collection, and then to those excluded successively from collections by Gregory IX (1234) and Boniface VIII (1298), the term strictly applies to all decretals after 1298, including the Clementinae (1317). Normally, however, it applies to decretals of John XXII and those covering the pontificates of Urban IV to Sixtus IV, known respectively as the extravagantes and extravagantes communes.