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En Gedi

EN GEDI (ĕn gē'dī, Heb. ‘ên gedhî, spring or fountain of the kid or wild goat). An oasis on the west coast of the Dead Sea about midway of its length, in the territory of Judah (Josh.15.62). Here David fortified a refuge from Saul (1Sam.23.29; 1Sam.24.1). Jehoshaphat defeated the Ammonites, Moabites, and Edomites from Mount Seir when they attacked by the narrow paths up the steep cliffs from the shore (2Chr.20.2). En Gedi is there identified with Hazazon Tamar, occupied by Amorites, which Kedorlaomer invaded in the days of Abraham (Gen.14.7). Its luxurious vegetation, due to warm springs, was famous in the days of Solomon (Song.1.14). Ezekiel prophesied that fishermen would stand here, in the restored land (Ezek.47.10). Known then as Engaddi, it continued to be prominent through the NT period and until the time of Eusebius. It is the modern Ain Jidi, and the OT site is Tell ej-Jurn.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)

en’-ge-di, en-ge’-di (`en gedhi, "fountain of the kid"):

Identical with the present Ain Jidi. According to 2Ch 20:2 it is the same as Hazazon-tamar, mentioned in Ge 14:7 as occupied by the Amorites and as having been attacked by Chedorlaomer after leaving Kadesh and El Paran on his way to the Vale of Siddim. The place is situated upon the West shore of the Dead Sea about midway between the North and the South ends, and was included in the territory of Judah (Jos 15:62). The spot is rendered attractive by the verdure clothing it by reason of immense fountains of warm water, 80 degrees F., which pour out from beneath the limestone cliffs.

In the time of Solomon (So 1:14) palms and vines were cultivated here. Josephus also mentions its beautiful palm groves.

In the time of Eusebius it was still a place of importance, but since the Middle Ages it has been almost deserted, being occupied now only by a few Arabs. The oasis occupies a small area a few hundred feet above the Dead Sea marked by the 650 ft. sedimentary terrace heretofore described (see Dead Sea). The limestone borders rise so abruptly to a height of 2,000 ft. immediately on the West, that the place can be approached only by a rock-cut path. Two streams, Wady Sugeir and Wady el- Areyeh, descend on either side through precipitous rocky gorges from the uninhabitable wilderness separating it from Bethlehem and Hebron. It was in the caves opening out from the sides of these gorges that David took refuge from Saul (1Sa 24:1). During the reign of Jehoshaphat (2Ch 20:2), the children of Ammon, Moab and Mt. Seir attempted to invade Judah by way of En-gedi, but were easily defeated as they came up from the gorges to occupy the advantageous field of battle chosen by Jehoshaphat.