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G. M. Mackie, “Embroidery,” HDB (1901); E. G. Hirsch, “Embroidery,” JewEnc (1901); H. F. Lutz, Textiles and Costumes among the Peoples of the Ancient Near East (1923); M. S. and J. L. Miller, Encyclopedia of Bible Life (1944), 353-355; G. I. Emmerson, “Embroidery,” NBD (1962).

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)

(riqrnah; the King James Version Needlework):

In the Revised Version (British and American) of Ex 28:39 shabhats is translated "weave."

In Ex 28:4 occurs the word tashbets, which is translated "broidered" in the King James Version and "checker work" in the Revised Version (British and American). If this kind of work is what it is supposed to be, it is more truly "needlework" than the embroidery. This work is still done in some of the Syrian cities and towns, especially in Damascus. Small caps for men to wear under their ordinary headdress and loose outer garments or dressing-gowns are the forms in which it is commonly seen. The checker-work effect is obtained by sewing in a cotton string between two pieces of cloth, so as to form designs. The patterns Usually run to straight lines such as zigzags or squares. The effect is striking, and we can well imagine would have made an impressive priest’s robe, especially if costly materials were used.

See also CRAFTS.

James A. Patch