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ELIAKIM (ē-lī'ă-kĭm, Heb. ’elyāqîm, God sets up)

ELIAKIM ĭ lī’ ə kĭm (אֶלְיָקִ֥ים, LXX ̓Ελιακείμ, G1805, meaning God raises up). There are three men in the OT and two in the NT who were called by this name. 1. The son of Hilkiah, Eliakim, with two others, was selected to negotiate with the besieging Assyrian army in 701 b.c. The trio objected to the Assyrian’s use of Heb. instead of Aram. in the public conference, but to no avail. After hearing the repeated demands that Jerusalem surrender, they relayed the message to the king with great sorrow. Cf. the parallel accounts (2 Kings 18:18-37; Isa 36:3-22). Eliakim is mentioned in Isaiah 22:20-24 as destined to take his unworthy father’s place in the government.

3. A priest who played a trumpet at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem under the leadership of Nehemiah (Neh 12:41).

4. Mentioned in the postexilic division of the genealogy of Jesus as the son of Abiud and the father of Azor (Matt 1:13).

5. Mentioned in the preexilic section of the genealogy of Jesus (Luke 3:30).

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)

(’elyaqim; Eliakeim, "God sets up"):

(1) The son of Hilkiah who succeeded Shebna as gorvernor of the palace and "grand vizier" under Hezekiah (Isa 22:20). The functions of his office are seen from the oracle of Isaiah in which Shebna is deposed and Eliakim set in his place (Isa 22:15 ff). He is the "treasurer" (the Revised Version, margin "steward"), and is "over the house" (Isa 22:15).

At his installation he is clothed with a robe and girdle, the insignia of his office, and, having the government committed into his hand, is the "father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah" (Isa 22:21). The key of the house of David is laid on his shoulder, and he alone has power to open and shut, this being symbolic of his absolute authority as the king’s representative (Isa 22:22).

One of Solomon’s officials is the first mentioned as occupying this position (1Ki 4:6), and this office was continued in both the Northern and Southern Kingdom (1Ki 16:9; 18:3; 2Ki 10:5; 15:5). Its importance is seen from the fact that after Azariah was smitten with leprosy, Jotham his heir "was over the household, judging the people of the land" (2Ki 15:5).

When Sennacherib sent an army against Jerusalem in 701, Eliskim was one of these Jewish princes who held on behalf of Hezekiah a parley with the Assyrian officers (2Ki 18:18,26,37; Isa 36:3,11,22). As a result of the invader’s threats, he was sent by Hezekiah in sackcloth to Isaiah, entreating his prayers to Yahweh on behalf of Jerusalem (2Ki 19:2; Isa 37:2).

(2) The original name of Jehoiakim, the son of Josiah, whom Pharaoh-necoh made king of Judah (2Ki 23:34; 2Ch 36:4).

(3) A priest who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem, rebuilt after his return from Babylon (Ne 12:41).

(4) A grandson of Zerubbabel and ancestor of Jesus (Mt 1:13).

(5) An ancestor of Jesus (Lu 3:30).