In the Assyrian inscriptions Ekron appears as amquarruna. Sennacherib assaulted it and killed its officials because they had been disloyal to Assyria. Esarhaddon called on twenty-two cities that paid tribute to him (Ekron was one) to help transport building supplies for his palace. Ashurbanipal included Ekron in the list of cities that paid tribute to him. The Greek form of Ekron, Accaron, appears in
EKRON, EKRONITE ĕk’ rŏn, ĕk’ rŏn īt (עֶקְרוֹן, LXX ̓Ακκαρών; עֶקְרוֹנִ֖י, LXX ̓Ακκαρωνίτη. Nouns derived from the root “to root out”). The northernmost of the five major Philistine cities and its inhabitants the latter of whom are mentioned in two passages (
Ekron, a border town in the tribal territory allotted to Judah, was not taken before the death of Joshua (
Though Ekron is said to have been taken by Judah at the beginning of the period of the Judges (
The god of Ekron was Baalzebub to whom King Ahaziah (c. 850-849 b.c.) sent to inquire of the possibilities of his recovery. The king’s action brought stern denunciation from Elijah (
Destruction was threatened Ekron by the prophets in their oracles against the Philistines (
When Padi, king of Ekron, was imprisoned by Hezekiah in 701 b.c., Sennacherib both forced his release and forced Hezekiah to cede Judean territory to him. Sennacherib arrived at Ekron on his way S after taking Eltekeh and Timnah (ANET, 287, 288). Later, tribute was taken from Ekron by both Esarhaddon (ANET, 291) and Ashurbanipal (ANET, 294). After the destruction of Jerusalem in 587 b.c., Ekron is unmentioned until the Maccabean period at which time in 147 b.c. gave the city as a prize for services to Jonathan Maccabeus (
The identification of the site of Ekron remains conjectural. Eusebius in the Onomasticon (ed. Klostermann, p. 22, 1. 9, 10) mentions Ekron as a large Jewish village between Azotus and Jamnia to the E. Jerome (PL. 23. 915) suggests that some identify it with turrim Stratonis (Caesarea) which suggestion is now completely rejected. Robinson (Biblical Researches, II, 226-229) identified Ekron with the village of Aqir; however, Aqir situated in a level plain four m. E of Yebnah and twelve m. NE of Ashdod and 3/4 m. SW of Ramleh—in the area today of Kefar ’Ekron—has neither a tell nor potsherds from the required fifteen hundred year period of occupation; hence the identification, though still preferred by Simon and others, is rejected by Macalister and Albright.
Macalister attempted a distinction between northern Ekron (to be identified with the Danite town, (
Qaṭra, a hill three m. SW of ’Aqir, with a tell and remains from the Greco-Rom. period, was favored by Albright as fitting the description of Eusebius which places Ekron to the E of the route from Ashdod to Jamnia. The site would lend itself to the strong fortifications expected in a major Philistine city.
More recently Naveh of the Joint Archaeological Survey of the Dept. of Archaeology of the Hebrew University and the Israel Exploration Society has proposed that Khirbat al-Muqanna’ (Tell Miqne), located about one third m. E of Kibbutz Revadim, S of the Sorek valley, is Ekron. Philistine sherds are to be found on the surface. The city existed from the iron age to the Pers. period, and at its height of development would have covered forty acres, which makes it the largest iron age city yet found in Pal. Sections of the wall and the city gate can be traced out. There are springs of water in the area sufficient to support a sizeable town.
R. A. S. Macalister, The Philistines, Their History and Civilization (1911), 64, 65, 74-76; W. F. Albright, “The Sites of Ekron, Gath, and Libnah,” AASOR, II-III (1923), 1-7; J. B. Pitchard, ANET (1950), 287, 288, 291, 294; J. Simon, GTT (1959), # # 318 (D/1), 1632; G. Naveh, “Khirbat al-Muqanna’—Ekron,” IEJ, VIII (1958), 87-100, 165-170; Z. Kallai-Kleinmann, “The Town Lists of Judah, Simeon, Benjamin, and Dan,” VT, VIII (1958), 145, 146 n. 4.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)
ek’-ron, ek’-ron-it ’eqron, "migration," "rooting out"; Akkaron:
From the Assyrian records we learn that it revolted against Sennacherib and expelled Padi, the governor he had placed over it, and sent him to Hezekiah, at Jerusalem, for safe keeping. Sennacherib marched against it and Ekron called in the aid of the king of Mutsri, formerly supposed to be Egypt but now regarded by some scholars as a district of Northwestern Arabia. Sennacherib raised the siege of Ekron to defeat this army, which he did at Eltekeh, and then returned and took the city by storm and put to death the leaders of the revolt and carried their adherents into captivity. He then compelled Hezekiah to restore Padi, who was once more made governor. This affair led to the famous attack of Sennacherib on Hezekiah and Jerusalem (Rawl., Anc. Mon., II, 159). Ekron is mentioned in 1 Macc 10:89 as being given byto Jonathan Maccabeus, and it appears in the accounts of the first Crusade.
An inhabitant of Ekron, used in plural in