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Einar Magnus Billing
1871-1939. Swedish theologian. Born in Lund, he was professor in dogmatic and moral theology in Uppsala (1909-20), then bishop of Vasteras. He was a leading figure in the revival of Luther studies, the so-called “Luther Renaissance,” which is generally considered to date from the publication of Billing's book on Luther's teaching on the state (1900). He laid down the lines for what was to become the distinctive Scandinavian method of Luther study-a historical, systematic approach crystallizing in the characteristic Scandinavian “motif research.” Other books included one on the Swedish national church.