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1855-1930. German historian. One of the greatest authorities on the ancient world, he was professor of ancient history at the University of Berlin (1902-23). Next to Mommsen, he probably contributed more than any other person to the foundation of the modern critical study of antiquity. His multivolumed Geschichte des Altertums (8 vols., 1884-1902) is an amazing feat of scholarship. He wrote a number of works in the area of Jewish and early Christian studies, the more important being Die Entstehung des Judenthums (1896); Der Papyrusfund von Elephantine (1912); Ursprung and Anfänge des Christentums (3 vols. 1921-23). In the last work he argued for the historical value of Luke-Acts and for its early date.