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David Calderwood

1575-1650. Scottish minister and historian. Said to have been born in Midlothian and educated at Edinburgh University, he was ordained minister of Crailing in 1604. He soon showed himself a strong opponent of James VI's policy of imposing episcopacy upon the Church of Scotland, for which stance he was confined to his parish and debarred from attendance at church courts. After standing up to the king in a personal confrontation he was deprived, imprisoned, and in 1619 ordered to leave the country. He spent several years in Holland and there produced Altare Damascenum (1623), a superb statement of the church's doctrine, ministry, and worship, which refuted prelacy and greatly encouraged Presbyterians. His name is usually associated, however, with his History of the Kirk of Scotland (1678 in folio; 8 vols., 1842-49), to complete which he was granted an annual pension by the general assembly.