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CONSUL kon’ sl (ὕπατος highest in office). The title of the two chief magistrates of the Rom. republic.

Of senatorial rank they served one year in the city of Rome and then were assigned as administrators of the provinces as proconsuls. The office was retained during the empire, but was confined to judicial functions, the presidency of the senate and the administration of the public games. The emperors often appointed themselves, members of their families and their friends to the office. They so disregarded the age limits for appointments that they named children. Honorius was made consul at birth. The office survived in the W until the 6th cent.

A communication from the Rom. consul Lucius, prob. Lucius Calpurnius Piso, to Ptolemy is cited in 1 Maccabees 15:16. It was circulated to neighboring states and declared the friendship between the Rom. senate and the Jews.

The LXX also uses the term to render the Chaldean for satrap and vizier (Dan 3:2, 3; 6:7).