d.766. Bishop of Metz from 742, he was also appointed chancellor by and exercised an influence almost unique at that time in both church and state. He played a part in the severing of ties which bound Italy and Rome to the Byzantine Empire, and in the various conquests and acts of legislation which prepared for the unity of Christendom under the joint sovereignty of emperor and pope. His “rule” for his clergy was intended to revive discipline and abolish laxity, though they were not bound by vows of poverty or of unquestioning obedience. His canonical clergy lived together under his supervision. He founded monasteries at Gorze, Lorsch, and St. Arda.