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1819-1875. English novelist and Christian Socialist. Born at Holne, Devonshire, and educated at King's College, London, and Magdalene College, Cambridge, he was ordained in 1842, and from 1844 was vicar of Eversley, Hants. Though ill-qualified, he was professor of modern history at Cambridge (1860-69) and he subsequently held canonries at Chester and Westminster. From 1869 he was prominent in the Educational League. He was precocious, athletic, romantic, and interested in the sciences, particularly botany. He was influenced by and F.D. Maurice, and as “Parson Lot” was the pamphleteer of the Christian Socialist* movement. His concerns were educational and sanitary reform, and the extension of the co- operative principle. He was a critic of Tractarianism;* “Muscular Christianity” is associated with him; and his insinuation in 1863 that Newman had little respect for truth led Newman to write his Apologia. Kingsley's novels generally had some bearing on social issues. Westward Ho, Hereward the Wake, and The Water Babies are still read.