Catholic Action

Organized activity by Roman Catholic laity seeking to influence public affairs. It received strong impetus in the pontificate of Pius XI, whose first encyclical Ubi Arcano (23 December 1922) encouraged the new lay organizations like Azione Cattolico in Italy, Jocists in Belgium and France, the Legion of Mary in Ireland, the Grail Movement in Holland. There were notable confrontations between Catholic Action and Fascism in Italy in 1931.