Bible Dictionaries

BIBLE DICTIONARIES, works that treat topically the places, persons, history, doctrines, and objects of the Bible. Probably the first to undertake such a work was Eusebius of Caesarea (c. a.d. 326), who wrote a four-volume encyclopedia of which only one part is extant, known as the Onomasticon. It is a geographical dictionary, listing and describing about 600 names of towns, rivers, etc., in the OT and in the gospels. Jerome (d. c. a.d. 340), who knew Pal. intimately, tr. it into Lat., correcting some of its errors and adding some important material. No tr. of this work has ever appeared in the Eng. language. A few years later, in a.d. 367, Augustine expressed what must have been the general desire of many serious students of Scripture when he wrote in his Rules for the Interpretation of Scripture:

“What then some men have done in regard to all words and names found in Scripture in the Hebrew and Syriac and Egyptian and other tongues...and what Eusebius has done in regard to the history of the past..., the same I think might be done in regard to other matters, if any competent man were willing in a spirit of benevolence to undertake the labor for the advantage of his brother. In this way he might arrange in their several classes and given an account of the unknown places and animals and plants and trees and stones and metals and other species of things that are mentioned in Scripture, taking up these only, and committing his account to writing...” (On Christian Doctrine, Book II, Ch. XXXIX).

This article will not include concordances (see Concordance), lexicons, indexes to the Bible, theological and denominational encyclopedias, or any of the smaller works since 1900.

The first book to be published in Eng. that might be classified as a Bible dictionary was a volume of 200 pages, published in London by William Patten in 1575, entitled: The Calendars of Scripture, whearin the Hebru, Chaldean, Arabian, Phenician, Syrian, Persian, Greek and Latin names of Contreys, Men, Women, Idols, Cities, Hills, Rivers, and of Other Places in the Holly Byble Mentioned by Order of Letters is Set and Turned into Our English Toung.

The first real Bible dictionary in Eng. was the Complete Christian Dictionary of Thomas Wilson, a minister of St. George’s, Canterbury (d. 1621). It appeared first in 1612, and passed through several edd., of which the fifth (1667) was somewhat enlarged. The third ed. (1622) contains 948 unnumbered pages, including a unique dictionary for the Book of Revelation of 131 pages, and a dictionary of the Song of Solomon of 49 pages. It is prob. the only Bible dictionary in Eng. which contains articles written not only around individual words, but around phrases.

For the next hundred years no important volumes of this character appeared in the Eng. language, but for the sake of completeness, the following are listed:

Thomas Wayne, a schoolmaster (1582-1645) wrote The General View of the Holy Scriptures; or, the Times, Places, and Persons of the Holy Scriptures, rev. ed. (1640).

Two years later in 1642 Richard Bernard (1568-1641) published a small work of less than 200 pages, more theological than Biblical, The Bibles Abstract and Epitome, The Capitale Heads, Examples, Sentences and Precepts of all the Principall Matters in Theologie, Collected Together for the Most part Alphabetically...taken out the best Modern Divines. Only one ed. is known.

Francis Roberts, the author of a number of apologetic works, issued in 1648 his Clavis Bibliorum: The Key to the Bible, which was printed in at least four edd. by 1675. In 1660 a volume was published that carried one of the most comprehensive titles ever given to this kind of a dictionary: “SCRIPTURE-NAMES EXPOUNDED, in this right profitable, fruitfall, large, and ample, Alphabeticall Table: Containing the Interpretation of about foure thousand Proper Names (but halfe a dayes reading in Newcastle, July 16, 1649), in the Hebrew, Caldean, Greeke, and Latine Tongues, dispersed throughout the whole Bible. Collected by R.F.H. Now again reprinted by S.D. for the benefit of all that would soon Reade and understand the Scriptures of Truth, in their Originall Tongues, especially Hebrew; these Names containe all, or most of the Primitives in Hebrew, which all being known, with their significations, make a firmer impression of them in the Memory, than anyway else I know, all Names being reduced to their Primitives, which in a Moneth one unlettered in the Hebrew, may doe, by a few directions, with much ease, profit, and delight.”

A volume more truly of a dictionary nature was published in 1730 by Ferdinando Shaw, A Summary of the Bible; or the Principal Heads of Natural and Revealed Religion; alphabetically disposed in the Words of Scripture only.

In 1732 a great Bible dictionary appeared, though it was the tr. of a work originally published in French, Paris (1722), by Augustin Calmet (1672-1757). This was the epochal Historical, Critical, Geographical, Chronological and Etymological Dictionary of the Holy Bible appearing in 3 volumes, a work of nearly two and a half million words. The last section, the second part of volume two, is prob. one of the most fascinating, and at the same time almost wholly ignored works in the area of Biblical interpretation. The first 300 pages (600 columns) consist of a carefully classified annotated “Bibliotheca Sacra, or a Catalog of the Best Books that can be Read in Order to Acquire a Good Understanding of the Scriptures.” Most of the sections on the various books of the Bible and Biblical subjects are reclassified under Catholic and Protestant authors. Many of the books in its magnificent bibliography could not be found in any of the libraries of Europe, Britain, or America today. The alphabetical table of authors contains over two thousand names. It contained also an account of Heb. military tactics by a famous French military authority, a dissertation on Heb. coins, a chronological table of the history of the Bible, and a “Preface to the Translation of the Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, and Greek names in the Bible.” This work continued in publication for more than one hundred years until 1847, and an abridged one-volume edition edited by T. A. Buckley appeared as late as 1856.

In 1759 a three-volume work was published without any hint as to its authorship. It was called A Dictionary of the Holy Bible...Serving in a Great Measure as a Concordance to the Bible, London (1759). It contained some 1300 pages, and approximately 1,700,000 words. It was strongly influenced by the Dictionary of Calmet. Some of its articles were disproportionately long: “Agab” was given ten columns, more than were assigned to “Adam” or “Angel.”

Probably the most frequently reprinted Bible dictionary appearing in the last half of the 18th cent. was A Dictionary of the Holy Bible Containing Definitions of All Religious and Ecclesiastical Terms...and a Biographical Sketch of Writers in Theological Science, edited by the famous John Brown of Haddington (1722-1787). The first ed. appeared in 1768; the fourth by 1797, while the sixth ed. included in the title The Whole Comprising Whatever Important is Known Concerning the Antiquities of the Hebrew Nation and the Church of God. The sixth ed. was enlarged by Brown’s three sons and included a life of the author. The two volumes contained 1770 pages, and about 800,000 words. Editions were published as late as 1860 under the editorship of William Brown. An interesting entry appears at the close of the article on “Church,” where the editor writes: “Whatever particular revivals may take place among the Protestants, I fear things in general shall grow worse and worse, til by apostasy and by persecution and murder the slaughter of the witnesses against Popery be fulfilled. Nor do I suppose this will take place til about a.d. 1886 or 2016.”

An anonymous Dictionary of the Bible was published in 1792, and became the first one published in America, at Worcester, Mass., by Isaiah Thomas, in 1798.

In 1774 John Fleetwood, the author of one of the most widely circulated lives of Christ to be published in the 18th or 19th cent., produced the most extensive dictionary written by an Eng. scholar prior to the large work of Kitto. Nothing is known of Fleetwood’s life; the name may have been a pseudonym. The book carried the lengthy title of The Christian’s Dictionary; or Sure Guide to Divine Knowledge. Containing a Full and Familiar Explanation of all the Words Made use of in the Holy Scriptures and Body of Divinity, as set forth in the Writings of the Most Eminent and Pious Divines; whether Ancient or modern...to which is added a Brief Explication of all the Proper Names found in Scripture, including the senses wherein they were used by the Jews, etc. The book was a quarto volume, containing more than 500 pages with a text of approximately 200,000 words.

Fleetwood’s interpretations were often quite unique. To him Antichrist was the Pope, and the beast out of the earth was Rome. His Dictionary of Scriptural Proper Names contains about 1500 items, many of which are treated in considerable detail.

The most important Bible dictionary to be edited by a British writer in the last of the 18th cent. was the one by Alexander MacBean, published in 1779, A Dictionary of the Bible Historical and Geographical, Theological, Moral, and Ritual, Philosophical and Philological. The first American ed. was taken from the second London ed. enlarged, published in Boston in 1798. Several other dictionaries of secondary importance appeared about the same time: A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Holy Bible: Containing a Biographical History, etc., London (1776); Alexander Fortescu: A Dictionary of the Holy Bible, Winchester (1777, which was reprinted in 1792 and 1798); William Button: A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Holy Bible (1796), based on the earlier dictionary of John Brown; and Peter Oliver: The Scripture Lexicon, or a Dictionary of Above Four Thousand Proper Names Mentioned in the Bible, with their Derivation, Description, Accentuations, Birmingham (1787). This work of less than 300 pages was published in a new ed. in Oxford in 1810, and another ed. in Oxford, 1818. Oliver was an American graduate of Harvard in 1730, and a judge of the Superior Court and Chief Justice until 1776, when he moved to England.

At the beginning of the 19th cent. James Wood (1751-1840) published a two-volume work, A Dictionary of the Holy Bible, a part of the sub-title reading, Serving in a Great Measure as a Concordance to the Bible Extracted Chiefly from Calmet, Brown, etc....and a Considerable Quantity of Original Matter, Liverpool (1804). This work went through twelve edd., the last in 1863.

James Morrison (1762-1809) was reputedly the author of the anonymous Bibliotheca Sacra or Dictionary of the Holy Scriptures appearing in two volumes in Edinburgh (1806). Much of it was taken from earlier writers.

The first Geographical Dictionary of the Holy Scriptures was published in 1807 by Aaron Arrowsmith. Various edd. of it appeared for fifty years. He edited also A Bible Atlas, and issued during his lifetime more than 130 maps. James Creighton’s Dictionary of Scripture Proper Names was published in London (1808). Miles Martindale’s A Dictionary of the Holy Bible, a two volume work, appeared in 1810.

A famous two-volume work was edited by William Jones (1762-1846), a Baptist minister of Finbury, entitled The Biblical Cyclopaedia; or Dictionary of the Holy Scriptures, London (1816). The pages were unnumbered, 648 in the first volume, 564 in the second. It contained some beautiful steel engravings, and some excellent maps (for that time).

In 1812 appeared A Concordance and Dictionary to the Holy Scriptures by Thomas Hawker (1753-1827) with later editions, a work of some 880 pages. A smaller volume of 130 pages was published in 1815 by J. K. Whish, The Cottager’s Dictionary of the Bible, Bristol (1815). Definitions were limited to one or two lines in length. The compiler said that he wrote the book “to facilitate the understanding of the Scriptures among the poor.” Some minor dictionaries were published at this time: John Robinson’s A Theological, Biblical and Ecclesiastical Dictionary, London (1815, 1816, rev. 1835). A small volume was published in 1818, The Youth’s Spelling, Pronouncing, and Explanatory Theological Dictionary of the New Testament with an introduction by Emerson Dowson.

In 1822 appeared the first Bible Dictionary by a recognized authority on Biblical geography, Edward Robinson (1794-1863), author of the most important work on Biblical geography that had yet appeared in any language, and Professor at Union Theological Seminary for nearly half a cent. His work, A Dictionary of the Holy Bible, appearing in 1822, continued to be published with numerous revisions as late as 1879.

In the same decade appeared a work that had a phenomenal circulation, The Domestic Dictionary of the Bible, by Howard Malcolm (1799-1899). This book reputedly sold more than 130,000 copies in twenty years of its first appearance. Malcolm edited also an Index to Religious Literature, A New Bible Dictionary, Boston (1852); A Dictionary of the Most Important Names found in the Holy Scriptures (1831); and The Proper Names of the Old Testament arranged Alphabetically (1859).

Dr. Archibald Alexander (1772-1851), Professor at Princeton Seminary, prepared for the American Sunday School Union his Pocket Dictionary of the Bible, Philadelphia (1829), with a revised edition in 1831. Although it was called a “pocket” dictionary, it contained 546 pages. It was not listed in the Bibliography of its author.

One of the most widely used volumes of this nature was written by Richard Watson (1781-1833), the author of the famous Theological Institutes. The title was comprehensive: A Biblical and Theological Dictionary: Explanatory of the History, Manners, and Customs of the Jews and Neighboring Nations. With an Account of the Most Remarkable Places and Persons Mentioned in Sacred Scriptures: An Exposition of the Principal Doctrines of Christianity and Notices of Jewish and Christian Sects and Heresies, London (1831), 1068 pp. At least ten edd. were required within twenty years.

The work of Samuel Green, A Biblical and Theological Dictionary, first appearing in London (1840), continued to be republished for more than a quarter of a cent. The ed. of 1868 was said to be the twenty-eighth ed. A two-volume work was issued in London by William Goodhugh (1799-1842), a work of 1444 pages, with the title, The Bible Cyclopedia, or Illustrations of the Civil and Natural History of the Sacred Writings by Reference to the Manners, Customs, Rites, Traditions, Antiquities, and Literature of Eastern Nations.

Beginning in 1844 a number of dictionaries appeared in rapid succession. Samuel Dunn edited A Dictionary of the Gospels with Maps, etc., fourth ed., London (1846). John Beard (1800-1876) wrote The People’s Dictionary of the Bible, London (1847 and 1861). In 1847 John P. Lawson produced a three-volume work entitled: The Bible Cyclopedia Containing the Biography, Geography, and Natural History of the Holy Scriptures. The first volume was devoted to biography. In 1869 he collaborated with John N. Wilson on a two-volume work entitled A Cyclopedia of Biblical Geography, Biography, Natural History, and General Knowledge. The Bibliography which covers eighteen columns was the most extensive list of titles available in its time. The same two men later published in Edinburgh The Imperial Encyclopedia of Biblical Knowledge in 1873.

The greatest dictionary of this period was the Cyclopedia of Biblical Knowledge edited by John Kitto (1804-1845). He engaged the help of forty distinguished Biblical scholars, including George Bush, John Eadie, J. Pye Smith, and the German scholars, Hengstenberg and Tholuck. For the first time there appeared in this work authoritative articles on geographical subjects, such as five columns on Baal-gad (Baalbek). Biblical criticism received eleven columns; gnosticism, twelve columns. The third ed. of 1869 was edited by William Lindsay Alexander in three volumes, with the assistance of such scholars as F. W. Farrar, Alexander Geikie, R. S. Pole, Henry Wace and John S. Candlish.

In 1849 John Eadie (1810-1876) produced the most important one-volume Bible Dictionary of its time, The Biblical Cyclopedia, which was revised and reprinted as late as 1901.

Between 1850 and 1860 ten new dictionaries were printed, some of which were new, and some of which were reprints or revisions of earlier works. In 1860 the first volume of William Smith’s (1813-1893) Dictionary of the Bible was printed. It took rank immediately as the outstanding Bible Dictionary in the Eng. language. The American revision, edited by Professor H. B. Hackett, assisted by Dr. Ezra Abbot of Harvard, in four volumes, 3667 pages, was the standard American Bible Dictionary for almost half a cent.

A large number of dictionaries were written in the second half of the 19th cent. A partial list would include Cassell’s Bible Dictionary (1863); John Ayre’s Treasury of Bible Knowledge (1866); J. Eastwood and W. A. Wright, The Bible Word Book (1866); William Henderson, Dictionary and Concordance of the Names of Persons and Places in the Scriptures (1869); Samuel O. Beeton, Bible Dictionary (1870); William Gurney, A Handy Dictionary of the Bible (1870); William Nicholson, The Bible Explained: A Dictionary of the Names, Countries, etc. as Contained in the Old and New Testaments (1870); James A. Wylie, The Household Bible Dictionary, 2 vols. (1870); Charles Boutell, A Bible Dictionary for Students of the Holy Scriptures, London (1871).

One outstanding work of this period was the Imperial Bible Dictionary by Patrick Fairbairn (1805-1874), which was expanded into six volumes in the new ed. of 1885, and which was reprinted in recent time. Another worthy of special comment was William Blackwood’s Potter’s Complete Bible Encyclopedia (1873), in two volumes of 2,000 pages with three thousand illustrations. It was the most beautiful Bible dictionary ever published in this country. It covered almost every conceivable subject in Biblical, theological, and ecclesiastical areas. It never had wide recognition, possibly because of its cost, which was high for its time.

An anonymous work, A New and Complete Pronouncing Bible Dictionary appeared in Philadelphia in 1877. The Handbook of Bible Words by H. F. Woolrych with an introduction by J. J. S. Perowne was published in 1878. The Presbyterian Board of Education of Philadelphia published in 1880 The Westminster Bible Dictionary, which was later the title of the more famous work edited by John Davis. The Southern Methodist Publication Society issued A Bible Dictionary by John C. Granberry (1829-1907) at Nashville in 1883. In the same year Robert Young published a small work in Edinburgh, Dictionary and Concordance of Bible Words and Synonyms of the New Testament. The earlier work of Eastwood and Wright was revised by Wright himself in 1884, and became a standard work of reference: The Bible Word Book, A Glossary of Archaic Words and Phrases in the Authorized Version of the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer.

The Self-Pronouncing Bible Dictionary of James P. Boyd, published in 1890, was frequently inserted in Holman’s Pronouncing Teacher’s Bible. In 1891 A. R. Fausset (1821-1910) produced The Englishman’s Critical and Expository Bible Encyclopedia, a large work of about 950,000 words, which remained in print until 1949. Fausset was one of the three authors of the famous Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, originally published in six volumes, which was immensely popular and passed through numerous editions, both complete and abridged. Fausset was an assiduous student of prophecy, but his works on this subject are very scarce.

One of the most popular and helpful of all modern dictionaries was that of John D. Davis (1854-1926): A Dictionary of the Bible. It passed through several edd.: the first in 1898; the second in 1903; the second, revised in 1907; the third, revised throughout in 1911; the fourth in 1924. The fourth edition was reprinted by Baker Book House in 1954. The work was revised and rewritten by Henry S. Gehman and published under the title The Westminster Dictionary of the Bible (1944). For forty years it was one of the most useful conservative one-volume dictionaries in Eng. Its viewpoint was somewhat less conservative after editing by Gehman. A thoroughly revised ed. appeared later in 1970, and will be discussed subsequently.

In 1899 was published the famous Encyclopedia Biblica, edited by T. K. Cheyne and T. Sutherland Black, containing 544,000 columns of text. A vast amount of scholarly work was produced by some of the writers, but on the whole the work was drastically hurt by some of its radical views. The Expository Times remarked: “It is not a dictionary of the Bible: it is a dictionary of the historical criticism of the Bible.”

Charles R. Barnes’ Bible Encyclopedia was issued in 1900 in two volumes, was reissued in 1910 in 3 volumes, and again in 1913 in a single volume with a short archeological supplement by Melvin Grove Kyle with the title The People’s Bible Encyclopedia. Samuel Fallows (1835-1922) edited The Popular and Critical Encyclopedia and Scriptural Dictionary, Chicago (1901, 1904), in three volumes of more than 1900 pages with 600 maps and engravings. Andrew C. Zenos and Herbert L. Willett were co-editors. Later it became the foundation for the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

In 1905 began the publication of the most important Bible dictionary since the work of William Smith in 1860, James HastingsDictionary of the Bible, containing approximately 5,400,000 words in five volumes. The fifth volume contained a series of outstanding special articles and 200 pages of index. The articles of Sir William Ramsay in the fifth volume on the religions of Greece and Asia Minor (47 pages), and on the numbers, hours, and years, and roads and travel in the NT (28 pages), totaling 172 columns, make the reader wonder how one man could produce such learned discussions. A condensation in a single volume was issued by Scribner in 1909. Hastings also edited a two-volume work, A Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels, which appeared in 1908, and the two-volume work, Dictionary of the Apostolic Church (1916-1918).

Within the same period were published several other dictionaries. Jesse L. Hurlbut’s Handy Bible Encyclopedia was issued by Winston in 1908. In the same year the house of Murray published a large work of 1000 pages edited by William C. Piercy. The Standard Bible Dictionary edited by Edward E. Nourse and Andrew C. Zenos was published by Funk and Wagnalls in 1909, and in a second edition in 1925. In 1936 it was further revised, and published under the name of A New Standard Bible Dictionary in 1936. The Temple Dictionary of the Bible, edited by W. Ewing and J. E. H. Thomsen appeared in 1910; and in 1914 Fleming H. Revell published The Universal Bible Dictionary, edited by A. R. Buckland, and a revised edition in 1929 with the assistance of Canon Lukyn Williams.

The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, edited by James Orr, in five volumes, first appeared in 1915. The articles in this work totaled over four million words, with hundreds of illustrations and with exhaustive indexes. It was consistently conservative in theology, and many of its articles are still the fullest ever written on their respective subjects.

During the next thirty years only one dictionary appeared of sufficient importance to be mentioned in this study. This was the revision of the Standard Bible Dictionary of 1909, under the title, A New Standard Bible Dictionary, edited by W. M. Jacobus, New York (1936), assisted by 55 contributors, and extending to nearly one million words. Probably Alan Richardson’s The Theological Word-Book of the Bible should also be included. Although not an inclusive dictionary of all topics, it contains valuable bibliographies.

Harper’s Bible Dictionary (1952), edited by Madeleine S. Miller and J. Lane Miller, followed their work on An Encyclopedia of Bible Life, published in 1944. It emphasized heavily archeology, sociology, natural history, pottery, and many similar topics. Archeologically the work was definitely up to date, and contained 500 illustrations together with the Westminster maps. In England it was known as Black’s Bible Dictionary.

In 1957 Moody Press published Unger’s Bible Dictionary, edited by Dr. Merrill F. Unger of Dallas Seminary, based on the Bible Encyclopedia of C. F. Barnes, originally issued in 1900. Most of the 500 photographs and drawings are new, and the archeological material is recent. Although it was presumably revised, about three-fourths of the material was taken unchanged from Barnes in spite of the lapse of half a cent.

Among modern dictionaries should be included the work published in 1958 by the Oxford University Press, A Companion to the Bible, edited by J. J. Van Allmen, which originally appeared in French in 1954. It is a dictionary of the major theological terms and ideas found in the Bible.

In 1960 the Seventh Day Adventists published a large volume, The Seventh Day Adventist Bible Dictionary of more than 1200 pages as Vol. 8 in their Commentary Series, edited by S. H. Horn. The archeological articles are esp. valuable.

The New Bible Dictionary, published in 1962 by Eerdmans, under the editorship of J. D. Douglas, 1390 pages, is without doubt the most important one-volume Bible dictionary to be published in the 20th cent. In addition to the consulting editors there were 135 contributors, including eleven from Australia, twelve from Africa, and nineteen from the United States. Some articles are too short to be adequate, but most of them are very thorough. The article by Donald Wiseman on Archeology, of thirty columns, including a unique “List of the Principal Excavated Sites in Palestine,” is a complete treatise on the subject.

In the same year there appeared also the first of four volumes of The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, published by the Abingdon Press, a beautiful piece of typography, with hundreds of illustrations, and a text of more than four million words. It includes the contribution of 253 scholars under the editorship of Dr. George A. Buttrick. Theologically, in some areas, esp. in the matters of inspiration, predictive prophecy, and authenticity, the work is inclined to a liberal view. In others, such as the Resurrection, three entire columns are devoted to the defense of the view that the tomb of Joseph of Arimathea was empty on the Easter morning. The articles are carefully documented, and the more important articles have extensive bibliographies.

In 1963 four volumes of an encyclopedic nature were published, each quite different from the other. McGraw-Hill issued a huge volume, The Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Bible, edited by Louis Hartman, a tr. of A. Van den Born’s Bijbels Woordenboek of more than 2600 pages. Some of the articles were unusual, such as a series on Veneration of the Dead, Fear of the Dead, Care of the Dead, and the Abode of the Dead.

The Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary appeared in the same year, under the editorship of Dr. Merrill C. Tenney, assisted by 65 contributors, a helpful and dependable volume for those who do not want the more exhaustive articles of the New Bible Dictionary. In the same category Macmillan published the Pictorial Biblical Encyclopedia, ed. by G. Cornfield, in 1963. A new and thoroughly revised ed. of Hastings’ one-volume Dictionary of the Bible, edited by F. C. Grant and H. H. Rowley appeared in 1963. Like the Interpreters’ Bible Dictionary it was based on the RSV, and contained many new entries, with excellent maps.

In 1970, more than seventy years after its first ed. (1898), a New Westminster Dictionary of the Bible appeared under the editorship of Dr. Henry W. Gehman, who had already revised this volume for an ed. in 1944. This new edd. has more than 300 pages more than the earlier editions. Its illustrations have been greatly increased, and the archeological data brought up to date.

Bibliography

For further discussion in this subject, see T. H. Horne: Manual of Historical Bibliography (1839), 369-372; McClintock and Strong: Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature (1867-1881), Vol. II, 787-789; The Jewish Encyclopedia (1903), Vol. IV, 577-579; an article by the famous bibliographer, E. C. Richardson, in the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Vol. II (1915), 844, 845; and an article by C. T. Fritsch in Interpretation (July, 1947), Vol. I, 363-371. The most extensive treatment of Bible dictionaries in Eng. up to the time of its appearance is the article by Wilbur M. Smith in the Fuller Library Bulletin, September 1954, which includes theological and ecclesiastical dictionaries not mentioned in this article.