Pope from 1334. Born Jacques Fournier, he was a distinguished theologian who became master of the University of Paris, and as a young man entered the Cistercian Abbey of Boulbonne. He was eventually created cardinal and, until his election as the third Avignon pope, was cardinal-priest of South Priscia. At this time he played a leading part in the controversy caused by John XXII’s teaching on the fate of departed souls. He showed great zeal in the pursuit of heretics. Austere in his public and private life, he continued to wear his habit when he became pope.