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ASTONISHMENT. (תִּמָּהוֹן, H9451, meaning confusion of mind, bewilderment, panic; שָׁמֵם, H9037, meaning to be appalled, desolate; שַׁמָּה, H9014, meaning horror, waste, or an object of horror; ἔκ-στασις, meaning displacement, confusion of mind; any casting down of a thing from its proper place or state; a throwing of the mind out of its normal state; alienation of the mind). Amazement, meaning mental stupefaction, bewilderment, consternation (
Psychological definition and description.
Astonishment depicts and describes a state characterized by bewilderment, emotional disturbance, lack of clear thinking and (sometimes) perceptual disorientation. In mild form, it is experienced by everyone. In an extreme form it may indicate conditions of lunacy (
As used in the OT.
As used in the NT.
The scriptural uses of the term in noun and verb forms seem to be consistent and developmental of the basic properties intended in the original languages—confusion of mind, bewilderment; displacement, blended fear and wonder. Emotional factors pervade any and all uses. Elements of excitation, fear, surprise and wonder are evident. Cognate and/or helpful terms may include: ecstasy, cognitive dissonance, awe, perturbation, and wonder.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)
as-ton’-ish-ment: Amazement; mental surprise, excitement, wonder; often the cause of the startled emotion, as in