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Apollinarius; Apollinarianism

Born about 310 at Laodicea in Syria, Apollinarius became a reader under the Arian bishop Theodotus and shared with his priestly father a delight in pagan literature. When Julian deprived Christians of pagan classics, they restyled parts of the Bible in poetic meters or as philosophical dialogues. He had welcomed Athanasius back from exile in 346, supported the homoousion (see Ancyra) and became bishop of the Nicene church at Laodicea about 361. His views were opposed when the Council of Alexandria, chaired by Athanasius in 362, attributed a human soul to Christ, and about 375 he seceded from the orthodox church. By 377 the Western Council of Rome under Bishop Damasus condemned him, followed by the Eastern councils of Alexandria (378), Antioch (379), and Constantinople (381). Theodosian decrees (383-88) forbade Apollinarian worship and outlawed his adherents.