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Apostle. The brother of , he was a native of Bethsaida, but carried on business as a fisherman at Capernaum. He became a disciple of , who directed his attention to Jesus as the (John 1:29). When later Jesus called several disciples to follow Him, Andrew was among the first to do so. It was he who introduced his brother Simon to Jesus and was later responsible for directing some Greek inquirers (John 12:21,22). He was of a practical turn of mind, as is seen from John 6:8,9 on the occasion of the feeding of the five thousand. His name appears in all the lists of the twelve apostles. Nothing is known of his contribution to the developing church, but the many apocryphal works which were later ascribed to him testify to the respected place he held in popular tradition even of an unorthodox kind.
ANDREW ăn’ drōō (̓Ανδρέας, G436, manly). The brother of and one of the first disciples of Jesus.
Although a native Palestinian Jew, Andrew bore a good Gr. name. He was the son of Jona (
Simon, his brother, as a married man, made his home in Capernaum (
When John the Baptist pointed out Jesus as “the
Andrew enthusiastically went in search of his brother Simon to share the discovery with him. He used his good influence to bring his brother into personal contact with Jesus (
Apparently Andrew and the other followers won at Bethany remained with Jesus during the events recorded in
Upon Jesus’ return to Galilee, Andrew resumed his work as a fisherman. When Jesus established His headquarters at Capernaum (
Some time later Andrew was among the Twelve whom Jesus selected as His apostles (
On two occasions in the fourth gospel, Andrew was closely associated with Philip, the only other apostle with a Gr. name. At the feeding of the five thousand, the anxious, calculating reaction of Philip stands in contrast to the practical action of Andrew in calling Jesus’ attention to the boy with his small store of food, even though he too failed to see its sufficiency for the purpose of Christ (
Andrew’s name is included among those who waited in the
Tradition has been busy with the later life of Andrew. Eusebius (Hist. III, 1) records the tradition that Andrew’s area of labor was in Scythia; hence he has been adopted as the patron saint of Russia. Other traditions connect him with Lydia, Thrace, and Achaia. The apocryphalpicture him as evangelizing in Achaia and being martyred at Patras by being bound to an X-shaped cross (crux decussata, subsequently called St. Andrew’s Cross). He has been made the patron saint of Greece. A later tradition claims that his body was transferred to Constantinople, and then to Italy during the Crusades. Andrew also has been made the patron saint of Scotland because of the late tradition that his arm was brought to its E coast by St. Regulus.
It is only in the fourth gospel that the character of Andrew emerges with any distinctness. He was a sincere man with earnest and devout Messianic expectations. He was not bound by traditional views, but was open to, and eager for, new truth. He was a man who had the courage of his convictions, eager and enthusiastic to have others share what he had come to know. He was always busy bringing others into touch with his Master. As a man of action, he was practical, ready and willing to do any needed task. He has been called “not only the first home missionary (
Andrew did not possess the native ability and aggressive leadership of his brother Peter, but he was content to play a lesser role. His broad sympathies, practical common sense, and steady discipleship made him a valuable member of the apostolic band.
M. R. James, The(1924), 337-363, 453-460, 472-475; G. Dalman, Sacred Sites and Ways (Eng. tr., 1935), 161-163; F. Dvornik, The Idea of Apostolicity in Byzantium and the Legend of the Apostle Andrew (1958); P. M. Peterson, Andrew, Brother of Simon Peter—His History and His Legends (1958); W. Barclay, The Master’s Men (1959), 40-46.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)
Andrew was the first called of the Twelve Apostles.
I. In. 1. Early History and First Call:
2. Second Call and Final Ordination:
3. Subsequent History:
Further incidents recorded of Andrew are: At the feeding of the five thousand by the Sea of Galilee, the attention of Jesus was drawn by Andrew to the lad with five sequent barley loaves and two fishes (
II. In Apocryphal Literature. The name of Andrew’s mother was traditionally Joanna, and according to the "Genealogies of the Twelve Apostles" (Budge, Contendings of the Apostles, II, 49) he belonged to the tribe of Reuben, the tribe of his father. A fragment of a Coptic gospel of the 4th or 5th century tells how not only Thomas (
(1) "The Preaching of Andrew and Philemon among the Kurds" (Budge, II 163 ff) narrates the appearance of the risen Christ to His disciples, the sending of Andrew to Lydia and his conversion of the people there.
(2) The "Preaching of Matthias in the City of the Cannibals" (Budge, II, 267 ff; REH, 666) tells of how Matthias, on being imprisoned and blinded by the Cannibals, was released by Andrew, who had been brought to his assistance in a ship by Christ, but the two were afterward again imprisoned. Matthias then caused the city to be inundated, the disciples were set free, and the people converted.
(3) "The Ac of Andrew and Bartholomew" (Budge, II, 183 ff) gives an account of their mission among the Parthians.
(4) According to the "Martyrdom of Andrew" (Budge, II, 215) he was stoned and crucified in Scythia.
According to the surviving fragments of "The Ac of Andrew," a heretical work dating probably from the 2nd century, and referred to by Eusebius (Historia Ecclesiastica, III, ii, 5), the scene of Andrew’s death was laid in Achaia. There he was imprisoned and crucified by order of the proconsul Eges (or Aegeates), whose wife had been estranged from him by the preaching of Andrew (compare Hennecke, 459-73; Pick,, 201-21; Lipsius, I, 543-622). A so-called "Gospel of Andrew" mentioned by (Ep, I, iii, 7) and Augustine (Contra Advers. Leg. et Prophet., I, 20), but this is probably due to a confusion with the above-mentioned "Ac of Andrew." The relics of Andrew were discovered in Constantinople in the time of Justinian, and part of his cross is now in Peter’s, Rome. Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland, whither his arm is said to have been transferred by Regulus. The ascription to him of the decussate cross is of late origin.
There is something significant in Andrew’s being the first called of the apostles. The choice was an important one, for upon the lead given by Andrew depended the action of the others. Christ perceived that the soul’s unrest, the straining after higher things and a deeper knowledge of God, which had induced Andrew to make the pilgrimage to Bethany, gave promise of a rich spiritual growth, which no doubt influenced Him in His decision. His wisdom and insight were justified of the after event. Along with a keenness of perception regarding spiritual truths was coupled in Andrew a strong sense of personal conviction which enabled him not only to accept Jesus as the Messiah, but to win Peter also as a disciple of Christ. The incident of the Feeding of the Five Thousand displayed Andrew in a fresh aspect: there the practical part which he played formed a striking contrast to the feeble-mindedness of Philip. Both these traits--his missionary spirit, and his decision of character which made others appeal to him when in difficulties--were evinced at the time when the Greeks sought to interview Jesus. Andrew was not one of the greatest of the apostles, yet he is typical of those men of broad sympathies and sound common sense, without whom the success of any great movement cannot be assured.