1822-1889. German Protestant theologian. Born in Berlin, son of an Evangelical bishop, he studied at various German universities, and was thereafter professor at Bonn (1852-64) and Göttingen (1864-89). He began his career as a disciple of F.C. Baur* and defended Baur's thesis of a radical conflict between Petrine Judaism and Pauline Hellenism, but the second edition of Die Entstehung der altkatholischen Kirche (1857) broke with the theory. Ritschl's chief works were The Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation (ET 3 vols., 1870-84); Die christliche Vollkommenheit (1874); Geschichte des Pietismus (3 vols., 1880-86); Theologie und Metaphysik (1881); and Gesammelte Aufsätze (2 vols., 1893-96). His brief Instruction in the Christian Religion (ET 1901) provides a compact survey of his views.