1875-1965. German theologian, medical missionary, and musician. Born in Alsace, he gave himself to his own study till he was thirty, achieving much in theology and music (he became an expert on J.S. Bach and organs). From 1905 he studied medicine, and in 1913, loosely associated with the Paris Missionary Society, went to Gabon to found a hospital at Lambaréné. Except for interruptions in and after World War I, and for money-raising lecture and recital tours, he gave the rest of his life to developing the hospital on idiosyncratic lines, incurring criticism sometimes for old-fashioned paternalism, sometimes for his slowness to make Western standards normative for his people.