c.779-840. Archbishop of Lyons. A refugee from Moorish Spain, he became a priest in France and in 816 was appointed to the Lyons post. He had an unrealistic vision of a Carolingian Empire encompassing all Christendom whose subjects, despite their racial origins, would be Christian, under one law and all called Franks. Participation in Carolingian political struggles led to his temporary deposition as archbishop at the Council of Thionville, from 835 to 837, by order of the Emperor Louis the Pious. His replacement, Amalric of Metz, was condemned by the Synod of Quiercy (838) for his interpretation of the ceremonies of the Mass in his book De Ecclesiasticiis Officiis (820) which Agobard subsequently attacked. He also wrote against the Jews (De Insolentia Judaeorum) and against superstitious beliefs and practices (Liber de Grandine et Tonitruis) but did not write the Liber de Imaginibus once attributed to him. His theological writings were mainly against the Adoptianists,* especially Felix, bishop of Urgel. Agobard was a severe critic of the German proprietory church system which was to cause great troubles in the future.