ADONIJAH (ăd'ō-nī'ja, Heb. ’ădhōnîyāhû, my Lord is Jehovah). 1. The fourth son of David, by Haggith, born at Hebron (
2. A Levite, sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the law (
3. A chieftain who with Nehemiah sealed the covenant (
ADONIJAH ăd’ ə nī’ jə (אֲדֹנִיָּ֣הוּ, or אֲדֹנִיָּ֣ה, my Lord is Yahweh). 1. The fourth son born to David in Hebron by Haggith (
2. One of the Levites sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the people in the cities of Judah the law of God (
3. One of those who sealed the covenant in Ezra’s time (
J. Gray, I and II Kings (1963), 77-105.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)
(’adhoniyahu or ’adhoniyah, "my lord is Yahweh"):
(1) The son of David and Haggith, the forth of David’s sons, born in Hebron after David became king of Judah, principally known for his attempt to become king instead of Solomon (
In treating the record it has been needlessly obscured by neglecting or distorting the time data. It says that the rebellion of Absalom broke out "at an end of forty years" (
Many considerations show that the outbreak cannot have occurred much earlier than the fortieth year of David; for Amnon and Absalom were born after David’s reign began, and were men with establishments of their own before Amnon’s offense against Tamar, and after that the record, if we accept the numeral of Josephus, accounts for 2 plus 3 plus 2 plus 4, that is, for 11 years (
On this view of the chronology all the events fall into line. David’s idea of making Solomon king was connected with his temple-building idea. This is implied in Kings, and presented somewhat in full in Chronicles. The preparations described in Chronicles (
The Absalom campaign began early in the calendar year. There is no reason to think that it lasted more than a few weeks. Later in the year a few weeks are enough time to allow for the campaign against Sheba. Joab must have been more or less alienated from David by David’s appointment of Amasa to supersede him. Then came David’s serious illness. Abishag was brought in, not to "attend upon David during has declining years," but to put her vitality at has disposal during a few weeks. Joab and Abiathar did not believe that David would ever do business again. Their personal loyalty to him no longer restrained them from following their own ideas, even though these were contrary to his wishes.
The narrative does not represent that Nathan and Bathsheba influenced David to interfere in behalf of Solomon; it represents that they succeeded in arousing him from has torpor, so that he carried out his own wishes and intentions. Perhaps resting in bed had done something for him. The treatment by Abishag had not been unsuccessful. And now a supreme appeal to his mind proved sufficient to arouse him. He became himself again, and acted with has usual vigor and wisdom.
Adonijah is described as a handsome and showy man, but his conduct does not give us a high opinion of his capabilities. He had no real command of the respect of the guests who shouted "Live King Adonijah." When they heard that Solomon had been crowned, they "were afraid, and rose up, and went every man his way." Adonijah made has submission, but afterward attempted to engage in intrigues, and was put to death.
(2) One of the Levites sent out by Jehoshaphat, in his third year, with the Book of the Law, to give instruction in Judah (
(3) One of the names given, under the heading "the chiefs of the people," of those who sealed the covenant along with Nehemiah (
Willis J. Beecher