1831-1891. Presbyterian minister. Born in Budapest, Hungary, the son of a Jewish merchant, he and the rest of his family were converted to Christianity by the Jewish mission of the . Deciding to enter the ministry, he studied at the Free Church College, Edinburgh, and the universities of Aberdeen and Glasgow (M.A., 1854). He served as a missionary to the Jews in Hamburg in 1854, as minister of English Presbyterian churches at South Shields, Greenwich, Notting Hill, and Belgrave, London. Throughout his lifetime he maintained a great interest in the conversion of Jews and other non-Christians in Europe, serving in many capacities in various missionary agencies. His writings include Christ and the Scriptures, (1864), Expository Lectures on the (1874-76), and The Divine Unity of Scripture (1892).