Christian Apologetics - Lesson 24


Pluralism is the view that all religions have salvific value.

Ronald Nash
Christian Apologetics
Lesson 24
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Is Jesus the Only Savior

Part 2

II.  Pluralism

A.  Early Life of John Hick

1.  Profession of Faith

2.  "All religions have salvific value."

B.  First Stage

1.  Copernican Revolution in Religion

2.  God-centered view of human salvation

3.  Hick appeals to a loving God - Universalism

4.  Implied that God was a personal God - created problems

5.  Epicycles

6.  Modifications

a.  "God is both personal and impersonal."

b.  "God is unknowable."

C.  Second Stage

1.  Salvation-centered view of the world religions

2.  Immanuel Kant

a.  Phenomenal God

b.  Real God

3.  Five Blind Men and the Elephant

4.  No religion has the whole truth about God.

5.  God as Ultimate Reality

6.  What if God really is personal?

D.  Eschatological Verification

E.  Criticisms

1.  Anything can function as a religion.

2.  Salvation is different for different people.

3.  Contradicts himself.

F.  Two Desperate Measures

1.  Essential vs. Nonessential

2.  Belief about Jesus

G.  Other Issues

1.  Geographical/Cultural Conditioning

2.  Tolerance

All Lessons
  • Introduction to Apologetics.

  • Apologetics involves finding evidence and presenting arguments to defend the Christian faith.

  • Two prominent worldviews are Christian theism and naturalism.

  • The law of non-contradiction states that A cannot be B and non-B at the same time and in the same sense.

  • Explanations and responses to different worldviews.

  • If God is good and all powerful, then why does evil exist?

  • Discussion about how the existence of evil is consistent with God's character.

  • Your noetic structure, presuppositions and view of epistemology are important elements in the formation of your worldview.

  • Discussion of deductive presuppositionalism vs. inductive presuppositionalism.

  • Objections to inductive presuppositionalism.

  • Arguments for and against evidentialism.

  • Arguments for and against foundationalism.

  • Discussion of natural theology.

  • There are valid, sound and cogent arguments for the existence of God, but no coercive proofs.

  • Discussion of different arguments for God's existence.

  • One version of the cosmological argument for God's existence emphasizes God as first in time, another emphasizes God as first in importance.

  • A possible world is a way the real world could have been. Modal logic, propositions, state of affairs and eternal entities are some of the considerations when discussing a possible world.

  • Something is logically possible if its description does not include a logical contradiction. The existence of the laws of knowledge refute the system of naturalism.

  • Middle knowledge is a form of knowledge attributed to God by Molina.

  • Miracles are a dividing line and central to Christianity.

  • David Hume's rational arguments against miracles and responses to those arguments.

  • Two miracles central to Christianity are the incarnation and resurrection.

  • The question of whether or not Jesus is the only savior touches on pluralism, inclusivism and exclusivism.

  • Pluralism is the view that all religions have salvific value.

  • Inclusivism is the view that even though the work of Christ is the only means of salvation, it does not follow that explicit knowledge of Christ is necessary in order for a person to be saved.

  • Salvation is totally the work of God and all children who die in infancy are elect of God.

  • Discussion from a biblical perspective of God's character and attributes.

  • Open theists believe that God does not have a perfect knowledge of the future.

  • Divine omnipotence and divine omniscience are two attributes of God.

  • When contemplating life after death, remember, Jesus has been there and come back. Will you commit your life to him or reject him?

These lectures were given at Reformed Theological Seminary in Orlando, Florida during the fall of 2001.