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Introduction to the New Testament: Romans to Revelation - Lesson 31

Jude and 2 Peter

Jude and 2 Peter both emphasize refuting false teachers.

Craig Blomberg
Introduction to the New Testament: Romans to Revelation
Lesson 31
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Jude and 2 Peter

General Letters

Part 4

IV. Jude and 2 Peter: The Forgotten Books at the Back of the Bible

A. The General Epistles and Revelation: Christian Communities' Response to Judaism

1. Observant Jewish-Christianity (James)

2. Spiritualized Jewish Christianity (Hebrews)

3. Gentile Christianity as spiritual Israel (1 Peter)

4. Gentile false teachers, Jewish backgrounds (2 Peter, Jude)

5. Anti-Gnosticism, Judaism no issue (1, 2, 3 John)

6. Anti-Roman persecution, anti-local Jewish hostility (Revelation)

B. Similar passages in Jude and 2 Peter

1. False teachers

a. Jude – "admission has been secretly gained…by ungodly persons who…deny our only master (v. 4)

b. 2 Peter – "false teachers…who will secretly bring in…heresies even denying the Master (v. 1)

2. Fallen angels

a. Jude – "the angels that did not keep their own position…have been kept by him…in the nether gloom until judgment" (v. 66)

b. 2 Peter – "God did not spare the angels when they sinned, but committed them to the pits of nether gloom…until the judgment" (v. 4)

3. Sodom and Gomorrah

a. Jude – "just as Sodom and Gomorrah…acted immorally…serve as an example" (v. 7)

b. 2 Peter – Sodom and Gomorrah…he made an example to those who were ungodly" (v. 6)

4. "Revile the glorious ones"

a. Jude – "these men defile the flesh, reject authority, and revile the glorious ones. But when the archangel Michael…disputed, he did not" (vv. 8-9)

b. 2 Peter – "those who indulge in the lust of defiling passion and despise authority…are not afraid to revile the glorious ones, whereas angels do not" (vv. 10-11)

5. "Irrational animals"

a. Jude – "by those things that they know by instinct as irrational animals do, they are destroyed" (v. 10)

b. 2. 2 Peter – "these, like irrational animals, creatures of instinct, will be destroyed" (v. 12)

6. Balaam

a. Jude – "Balaam's error…blemishes…waterless clouds, carried alone by winds…for whom the nether gloom of darkness has been reserved forever" (vv. 11-13)

b. 2 Peter – "blemishes…the way of Balaam…waterless springs and mists driven by a storm; for them the nether gloom of darkness has been reserved (vv. 13-17)

C. Key Observations from Jude

1. 2 Peter probably depends on Jude

2. Ad hominem, ad hoc tirade against libertines

3. Key reminder of "limits of tolerance"

4. Interesting use of pseudepigrapha

D. Uniformitarianism vs. 2 Peter

1. Chapter 1 vs. no prophecy: no inspiration of Scripture

2. Chapter 2 vs. no judgment: no need for moral living

3. Chapter 3 vs. no parousia: no solution to the problem of evil

E. 2 Peter

1. 1:15 and issue of authorship, testamentary genre

2. Still conceivable in 60's if countering Epicureanism or Stoicism

3. One chapter per issue defending delay of parousia (see how 3:2, 3, 4 unite these concerns)

4. 2:20-22 important in "eternal security" debate

5. 3:8-10 most enduring legacy and key to a Christian theodicy


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Class Resources
  • Paul was trained as a Pharisee and persecuted Christians because he considered them enemies of God. After his conversion experience, he travelled in Asia Minor and Europe preaching the gospel and planting churches. Many of the letters in the New Testament are ones that he wrote to these churches.

  • Paul was trained as a Pharisee and persecuted Christians because he considered them enemies of God. After his conversion experience, he travelled in Asia Minor and Europe preaching the gospel and planting churches. Many of the letters in the New Testament are ones that he wrote to these churches.

  • Paul was trained as a Pharisee and persecuted Christians because he considered them enemies of God. After his conversion experience, he travelled in Asia Minor and Europe preaching the gospel and planting churches. Many of the letters in the New Testament are ones that he wrote to these churches.

  • A key theme in the book of Galatians is how the Law and the Gospel are related.

  • A key theme in the book of Galatians is how the Law and the Gospel are related.

  • A key theme in the book of Galatians is how the Law and the Gospel are related.

  • The return of Christ is a central theme in the letters to the Thessalonians.

  • The return of Christ is a central theme in the letters to the Thessalonians.

  • Paul addresses the extremes of asceticism and hedonism, as well as concerns regarding marriage, spiritiual gifts and the resurrection.

  • Paul addresses the extremes of asceticism and hedonism, as well as concerns regarding marriage, spiritiual gifts and the resurrection.

  • Paul addresses the extremes of asceticism and hedonism, as well as concerns regarding marriage, spiritiual gifts and the resurrection.

  • Paul responds to specific situations in the Corinthian church including emphasizing a correct perspective on giving and encouragement to see God's redemptive purpose in our suffering.

  • Paul responds to specific situations in the Corinthian church including emphasizing a correct perspective on giving and encouragement to see God's redemptive purpose in our suffering.

  • Paul wrote Romans as a systematic exposition of the gospel.

  • Paul wrote Romans as a systematic exposition of the gospel.

  • In Colossians, Paul emphasizes the deity of Christ. Philemon was written to a gentlema Paul knows to encourage him to welcome back Onesimus, his runaway slave, who became a disciple of Christ and was returning.

  • In Colossians, Paul emphasizes the deity of Christ. Philemon was written to a gentlema Paul knows to encourage him to welcome back Onesimus, his runaway slave, who became a disciple of Christ and was returning.

  • Paul describes to the followers of Jesus in Ephesus, who they are in Christ, and the ethical implications for how they should live their daily lives.

  • Paul describes to the followers of Jesus in Ephesus, who they are in Christ, and the ethical implications for how they should live their daily lives.

  • Paul contrasts the condescention and the exaltation of Christ, and addresses specific situations in the Philippian church.

  • Paul writes to encourage and instruct Timothy and Titus, both of whom are young pastors.

  • Paul writes to encourage and instruct Timothy and Titus, both of whom are young pastors.

  • Both 1 Timothy and 1 Corinthians contain key passages addressing the roles of men and women in the local church.

  • Both 1 Timothy and 1 Corinthians contain key passages addressing the roles of men and women in the local church.

  • The book of James emphasizes that people demonstrate that they have true faith in Christ by their good works.

  • The book of James emphasizes that people demonstrate that they have true faith in Christ by their good works.

  • Hebrews is written to Hebrew Christians to demonstrate how Christ fulfilled the Mosaic covenant.

  • Hebrews is written to Hebrew Christians to demonstrate how Christ fulfilled the Mosaic covenant.

  • 1 Peter encourages followers of Christ to persevere even though they face persecution.

  • 1 Peter encourages followers of Christ to persevere even though they face persecution.

  • Jude and 2 Peter both emphasize refuting false teachers.

  • Major themes in John's epistles are sin, the love of God, the humanity and deity of Jesus, and the importance of obedience.

  • Major themes in John's epistles are sin, the love of God, the humanity and deity of Jesus, and the importance of obedience.

  • Revelation focuses on God's plan for cosmic history and the importance of perseverance during difficult circumstances.

  • Revelation focuses on God's plan for cosmic history and the importance of perseverance during difficult circumstances.

  • Revelation focuses on God's plan for cosmic history and the importance of perseverance during difficult circumstances.

  • Revelation focuses on God's plan for cosmic history and the importance of perseverance during difficult circumstances.

Using the English New Testament, this course surveys the New Testament epistles and the apocalypse. Issues of introduction and content receive emphasis as well as a continual focus on the theology of evangelism and on the contemporary relevance of the variety of issues these documents raise for contemporary life.